Amami Thrush Zoothera major


Taxonomic note
Zoothera dauma (Sibley and Monroe [1990, 1993]) and Z. imbricata (Collar [2004]) have been lumped together into Z. dauma and subsequently split into Z. dauma, Z. major and Z. aurea following del Hoyo and Collar (2016).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Near Threatened D2
2012 Not Recognised
2008 Not Recognised
2006 Not Recognised
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1994 Critically Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,100 good
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 15 good
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2500-9999 medium estimated 2013
Population trend Increasing poor estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -

Population justification: Based on detection rate analysis, the species was estimated to have a population size of 2,513 mature individuals in 2013 (Mizuta et al. 2016). Therefore, the population is tentatively placed in the range of 2,500-9,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population size is likely increasing. Based on a 1996 estimate the population size was reported as 58 mature individuals (Amami Ornithologists’ Club [AOC] 1997). The population appears to have been showing a gradual recovery with 502 singing birds recorded during surveys in 2013 (Mizuta et al. 2016). However no attempt was made to extrapolate to the full extent of suitable habitat, and doing so indicated that the population was actually 945-1,858 prior to 2012 (Mizuta et al. 2016). Detection rate (birds per point count) between 2007 and 2012 was roughly similar at approx. 1.2, but the 2013 survey returned 1.7 birds per point. The increased detection of birds in 2013 indicated the population may be 2,513 mature individuals in that year (Mizuta et al. 2016).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Japan N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Japan Amami islands

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Altitude 100 - 400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Zoothera major. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/02/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/02/2020.