EX
Alagoas Foliage-gleaner Philydor novaesi



Justification

Justification of Red List Category
Although this species inhabited a region where there is a high level of observer awareness and searches in suitable habitat have been carried out by professional ornithologists, there have been no records since 2011. Extensive habitat loss has occurred in the region, and the remaining fragments are small and isolated (Butchart et al. 2018). Following the application of new methods for estimating the probability of a species remaining extant, the species is now considered to be Extinct. The species's decline was largely a result of logging, felling for charcoal and conversion of forest to sugarcane plantations and pastureland.

Population justification
Despite extensive searches, the species has not had a confirmed sighting since 2011 and is now considered to be Extinct (Butchart et al. 2018).

Trend justification
The species is thought to have declined rapidly owing to the widespread and ongoing clearance of forest through logging, felling for charcoal and for conversion to sugarcane plantations and pastureland. The species is considered to have gone extinct since 2011 (Butchart et al. 2018).

Distribution and population

Philydor novaesi has only ever been recorded at two sites in Alagoas and Pernambuco, north-east Brazil. It was first discovered at Murici (Alagoas) in 1979, when it was described as relatively conspicuous and easy to locate (Teixeira and Gonzaga 1983). Subsequent surveys found the species to be rare, and there were no confirmed records between 1992 and 1998. Single individuals were found in 1998 and 1999 (A. Whittaker in litt. 1999), and four birds in 2000 (J. Goerck in litt. 1999, 2000). It was discovered at Frei Caneca Private Reserve (Pernambuco) in April 2003 (Mazar Barnett et al. 2003, 2005), and at the adjacent Jaqueira (Frei Caneca) Reserve, where two individuals were observed in 2007/2008 (P. Develey in litt. 2007, 2008, 2009). Television footage of one individual was recorded in 2009 (P. Develey in litt. 2007, 2008, 2009), and the species could still be located at Frei Caneca in late 2010 and early 2011 (WikiAves n.d.). Despite extensive searches in both Frei Caneca and Murici, the species has not had a confirmed sighting since 2011 (Pereira et al. 2014). Following the application of new methods for estimating the probability of a species remaining extant (Akcakaya et al. 2017, Keith et al. 2017, Thompson et al. 2017), the probability of the species being extant was estimated at 0.074 based on records and surveys, and 0.059 based on threats (Butchart et al. 2018). Based on the probability thresholds recommended by Butchart et al. (2018), the species is now considered to be Extinct.

Ecology

It inhabited the edges of clearings in interior upland forest at 400-550 m, from the understorey to the subcanopy, and has been observed in selectively logged and old secondary forests. Birds have been found singly, in pairs or small groups, and often joined mixed-species flocks. Food was gleaned from leaves, bark, crevices and debris, and consisted of insects, including larvae taken from dead wood, beetles, grasshoppers and ants. Observations suggest the species preferentially foraged on bromeliads (Lees et al. 2014). There is little breeding information, but an immature was collected in January, and birds in February were moulting (Ridgely and Tudor 1994). One of the individuals at the Jaqueira (Frei Caneca) Reserve in 2007/2008 was observed in secondary forest (P. Develey in litt. 2007, 2008, 2009).

Threats

Forest at Murici was reduced from 70 km2 in the 1970s, to c. 30 km2 of highly disturbed and fragmented habitat by 1999 (J. Goerck in litt. 1999, 2000), largely as a result of logging and conversion to sugarcane plantations and pastureland. Such forest fragments are severely threatened by fires spreading from adjacent plantations (A. Whittaker in litt. 1999, J. Goerck in litt. 1999, 2000). The Frei Caneca private reserve and adjacent SAVE Brasil protected area are still suffering from ongoing illegal charcoal exploitation (P. Develey in litt. 2007, 2008, 2009). The massive clearance of Atlantic forest in Alagoas and Pernambuco left few other sites of suitable forest remaining. The species is thought to have preferentially foraged on bromeliads which also suffered as a result of forest loss (Lees et al. 2014).

Conservation actions

The species is now considered to be extinct, both at a national level and at a global level (MMA 2014, Butchart et al. 2018).

Identification

18 cm. Plain rufous-brown furnariid. Dull ochraceous forehead and lores, scaled black. Blackish-brown crown, scaled dark olive-brown. Narrow buffy-cinnamon supercilium and subocular stripe. Dull chestnut eye-stripe. Blackish stripe from mandible to auriculars, spotted chestnut. Olivaceous-chestnut nape and rest of upperparts. More rufous rump and tail. Pale rufous underparts, tinged olive on sides of belly and crissum. Similar spp. Black-capped Foliage-gleaner P. atricapillus is much more rufous, with darker head pattern. Voice Slightly descending series of whistles uü-uü-uü and a thürr alarm call.

Acknowledgements

Text account compilers
Sharpe, C.J., Symes, A., Wheatley, H., Capper, D., Bird, J., Mahood, S., Ashpole, J, Pople, R.

Contributors
Develey, P., Goerck, J.M. & Whittaker, A.


Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Philydor novaesi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 03/07/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 03/07/2022.