Justification of Red List Category
This species is listed as Critically Endangered because it is thought to have an extremely small population, which occupies a very restricted range in which habitat is extremely limited, severely fragmented and rapidly declining in quality, extent and area. Further conservation actions are required as a matter of urgency if this species is to survive.
It is thought that less than 30 individuals persist (Pereira et al. 2014). It is therefore placed in the band 1-49 mature individuals.
This species is suspected to be declining very rapidly owing to the on-going and rapid loss of remaining forest habitat.
Myrmotherula snowi has only ever been recorded in Alagoas and Pernambuco states, north-east Brazil (Collar et al. 1992). It was first discovered at Murici (Alagoas) in 1979, when an adult male and two adult females were collected. An additional juvenile male was collected in 1984, and subsequent records throughout the 1990s, in 2000 and in 2009 have only found the species in very small numbers (Whitney and Pacheco 1995, Whitney and Pacheco 1997, J. M. Goerck in litt. 1999, 2000, A. Whittaker in litt. 1999, F. Olmos in litt. 2002). Recently, it has also been discovered in Pernambuco at Mata do Benedito (Roda in litt. 2007, Roda et al. 2009), Mata do Estado (F. Olmos in litt. 2002, Roda et al. 2003). Frei Caneca (Anon 2003) and São Vicente Férrer (Roda et al. 2009). Although it has not yet been found in Pedra Dantes, the 360-ha forest patch adjacent to Frei Caneca, recently purchased by BirdLife/SAVE Brasil, it is expected to occur there (P. Develey in litt. 2007, Roda in litt. 2007). Despite extensive playback searches, no new sites for this species have been found (Pereira et al. 2014). Remaining habitat is very limited and severely fragmented.
It forages in pairs and small mixed-species flocks in the middle strata of upland semi-humid forest at 400-550 m (Roda et al. 2003). Birds range from 1.5 to 9 m above ground, keeping mostly at 5-8 m (Whitney and Pacheco 1997). Foraging flocks reportedly include White-flanked Antwren M. axillaris and a variety of other formicariids, although observers at Mata do Estado failed to locate it in mixed flocks (Roda et al. 2003). The diet consists of arthropods, including spiders, beetles, ants and cockroaches. Breeding probably occurs in February, and juveniles have been recorded in May.
Forest at Murici has been reduced from 70 km2 in the 1970s to 30 km2 of highly disturbed and fragmented habitat in 1999 (J. M. Goerck in litt. 1999, 2000), largely as a result of logging and conversion to sugarcane plantations and pastureland. In January 1999, new logging roads were evident and such forest fragments are severely threatened by fires spreading from adjacent plantations (J. M. Goerck in litt. 1999, 2000; A. Whittaker in litt. 1999). The Frei Caneca private reserve and BirdLife/SAVE Brasil area are also still suffering from illegal charcoal exploitation (P. Develey in litt. 2007). The massive clearance of Atlantic forest in Alagoas and Pernambuco has left few other sites likely to support populations of this species. Having a montane distribution that is close to the maximum altitude within its range, this species is also potentially susceptible to climate change (BirdLife International unpublished data).
Conservation Actions Underway
Considered Critically Endangered at the national level in Brazil (Silveira & Straube 2008, MMA 2014). The efforts of conservationists resulted in the creation of the Murici Ecological Station in 2001, encompassing 6,116 ha. National and international efforts to ensure the effectiveness of this designation are on-going (J. M. Goerck in litt. 1999, 2000). Frei Caneca is a private reserve protecting c. 6 km2 of forest (Anon 2003); an additional 360 ha of adjacent forest have been purchased by Birdlife/SAVE Brazil (P. Develey in litt. 2007).
9.5 cm. Small, uniform antwren. Male entirely grey, slightly paler below with inconspicuous small black patch on throat. Female entirely fulvous-brown above, russet tail. Rufous-buff underparts with white throat. Similar spp. Very similar to Unicoloured Antwren M. unicolor, but not sympatric and has shorter tail and longer bill, and female is more rufescent below. Voice Song is series of 3-6 downslurred, clear-whistled syllables. A kleek contact call and nyiih-nyeeh-nyaah alarm call have been described.
Text account compilers
Bird, J., Calvert, R., Capper, D., Mahood, S., Pople, R., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Ashpole, J, Sharpe, C J
Whittaker, A., Roda, S., Olmos, F., Develey, P., Goerck, J.
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Myrmotherula snowi. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/07/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/07/2019.