Akekee Loxops caeruleirostris


Atkinson, C. T., Utzurrum, R. B., Lapointe, D. A., Camp, R. J., Crampton, L. H., Foster, J. T. and Giambelluca, T. W. 2014. Changing climate and the altitudinal range of avian malaria in the Hawaiian Islands – an ongoing conservation crisis on the island of Kaua'i. Global Change Biology 20: 2426–2436.

Behnke, L.A.H, Pejchar, L. and Crampton, L.H. 2016. Occupancy and habitat use of the endangered Akikiki and Akekee on Kauai Island, Hawaiii. Condor 18: 148-158.

Buley, B. 2015. Preventing extinction - Project aims to save endangered bird species on Kauai. The Garden Island. Available at: (Accessed: 13/08/2015).

Else, J. 2016. Rats blamed for missing ‘akikiki eggs. .

Foote, K. 2010. 48 Kaua‘i Species Protected Under Endangered Species Act - News Release. U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service - Pacific Islands External Affairs Office, Honolulu, Hawaii.

Fortini, L.B., Vorsino, A.E., Amidon, F.A., Paxton, E.H., Jacobi, J.D. 2015. Large-Scale Range Collapse of Hawaiian Forest Birds under Climate Change and the Need 21st Century Conservation Options. PLoS ONE 10(10): 1-22.

Glad, A. and Crampton, L. H. 2015. Local prevalence and transmission of avian malaria in the Alakai Plateau of Kauai, Hawaii, U.S.A. . J. Vector Ecol. 40: 221-229.

Hammond, R.L., Crampton, L. H., and Foster, J. T. 2015. Breeding biology of two endangered forest birds on the island of Kaua'i. Condor 117: 31-40.

Herrmann, C. M.; Snetsinger, T. J. 1997. Pox-like lesions on endangered Puaiohi Myadestes palmeri and occurrence of mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus populations near Koaie Stream. 'Elepaio 57: 73-75.

Holmer, S. 2007. Next U.S. Species to go Extinct May be Two Hawaiian Birds. American Bird Conservancy media release,

Lepson, J. K. 1997. 'Anianiau (Hemignathus parvus). In: Poole, A.; Gill, F. (ed.), The birds of North America, No. 312, pp. 1-16. The Academy of Natural Sciences and The American Ornithologists' Union, Philadelphia and Washington, DC.

Lepson, J. K.; Pratt, H. D. 1997. 'Akeke'e (Loxops caerulescens). In: Poole, A.; Gill, F. (ed.), The birds of North America, No. 295, pp. 1-14. The Academy of Natural Sciences and The American Ornithologists' Union, Philadelphia and Washington, DC.

Loope, L.L.; Medeiros, A.C. 1995. Strategies for long-term protection of biological diversity in rainforests of Haleakala National Park and East Maui, Hawaii. Endangered Species Update 12: 1-5.

Paxton, E.H.; Camp, R.J.; Gorresen, P.M.; Crampton, L.H.; Leonard Jr., D.L.; VanderWerf, E.A. 2016. Collapsing avian community on a Hawaiian island. Science Advances 2: e1600029.

Pratt, H.D. 1994. Avifaunal change in the Hawaiian Islands, 1893-1993. Studies in Avian Biology 15: 103-118.

Scott, J.M.; Mountainspring, S.; Ramsey, F.L.; Kepler, C.B. 1986. Forest bird communities of the Hawaiian Islands: Their dynamics, ecology, and conservation. Cooper Ornithological Society, California.

The Garden Island. 2014. Predator fence work begins May 6, 2014, . Available at:

U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1983. Kauai forest birds recovery plan. USFWS, Portland, USA.

VanderWerf, E. A.; American Bird Conservancy. 2007. Petition to list the Akikiki or Kauai Creeper (Oreomystis bairdi) and the Akekee or Kauai Akepa (Loxops caeruleirostris) as endangered or threatened under the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

VanderWerf, E.A. 2012. Hawaiian Bird Conservation Action Plan. Pacific Rim Conservation, Honolulu, HI.

Further resources

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Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Loxops caeruleirostris. Downloaded from on 13/11/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 13/11/2019.