African Skimmer Rynchops flavirostris


Bird, J.P., Martin, R., Akçakaya, H.R., Gilroy, J., Burfield, I.J., Garnett, S.G., Symes, A., Taylor, J., Şekercioğlu, Ç.H. and Butchart, S.H.M. 2020. Generation lengths of the world’s birds and their implications for extinction risk. Conservation Biology 34(5): 1252-1261. DOI: 10.1111/cobi.13486.

Britton, P. L. 1980. Birds of East Africa. East Africa Natural History Society, Nairobi.

Coppinger, M. P.; Williams, G. D.; Maclean, G. L. 1988. Distribution and breeding biology of the African Skimmer on the upper and middle Zambezi river. Ostrich 59: 85-96.

del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. and Sargatal, J. (eds). 1996. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 3: Hoatzin to Auks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Gamundani, P.T., Magadza, C., and Kativu, S. 2017. Contemporary spatial distribution pattern, breeding status and habitat suitability criteria for the African skimmer, Rynchops flavirostris Veillot, 1816 (Aves Laridae) in the Zambezi Valley, Zimbabwe. Biodiversity Journal 8(3): 783-806.

Ginn, P. J.; McIlleron, W. G.; Milstein, P. le S. 1989. The complete book of southern African birds. Struik Winchester, Cape Town.

Hancock, P. 2008. African Skimmer. In: Hancock, P. (ed.), The status of globally and nationally threatened birds in Botswana, 2008., pp. 21-22. BirdLife Botswana.

IUCN. 2021. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2021-3. Available at: (Accessed: 09 December 2021).

Tyler SJ. 2004. The breeding and population status of the African Skimmer Rynchops flavirostris in Botswana . Ostrich 75(4): 329-332.

Tyler, S. J.; Stone, J. R. 2000. African Skimmers Rynchops flavirostris in Botswana. Babbler 37: 33-38.

Tyler, S.J. 2012. A review of waterbird counts in Botswana 1991-2010 Babbler special supplement no. 4. BirdLife Botswana.

Urban, E.K., Fry, C.H. and Keith, S. 1986. The Birds of Africa, Volume II. Academic Press, London.

Wetlands International. 2002. Waterbird population estimates. Wetlands International, Wageningen, Netherlands.

Wetlands International. 2021. Waterbird Population Estimates. Available at: . (Accessed: 5th January 2021).

Zusi, R. L. 1996. Rynchopidae (Skimmers). In: del Hoyo, J.; Elliott, A.; Sargatal, J. (ed.), Handbook of the birds of the world, pp. 668-677. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Further resources

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Rynchops flavirostris. Downloaded from on 05/03/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 05/03/2024.