African Penguin Spheniscus demersus


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Crawford, R. J. M., Altwegg, R., Barham, B. J., Barham, P. J., Durant, J. M., Dyer, B. M., Makhado, A. B., Pichegru, L., Ryan, P. G., Underhill, L. G., Upfold, L., Visagie, J., Waller, L. J., Whittington, P. A. 2011. Collapse of South Africa’s penguins in the early 21st century: a consideration of food availability. African Journal of Marine Science 33: 139–156.

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Frost, P. G. H., Siegfried, W. R. & Burger, A. E. 1976. Behavioural adaptations of the Jackass penguin, Spheniscus demersus to a hot, arid environment. Journal of Zoology 179: 165–187.

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Grigg, J. &, Sherley, R. 2019. Annual Progress Report 2019: Investigating the dispersal and prospecting behaviour of immature African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) to inform conservation management.

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Kemper, J.; Underhill, L.G.; Roux, J.-P. 2007a. Artificial burrows for African penguins at Halifax Island: Do they improve breeding success? In: Kirkman, S.P. (ed.), Final Report of the BCLME (Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem) Project on Top Predators as Biological Indicators of Ecosystem Change in the BCLME. Avian Demography Unit, UCT, Cape Town.

Kemper, J.; Underhill, L.G.; Roux, J.-P.; Bartlett, P.A.; Chesselet, Y.J.; James, J.A.C.; Jones, R.; Uhongora, N.-N.; Wepener, S. 2007b. Breeding patterns and factors influencing breeding success of African Penguins Spheniscus demersus in Namibia. In: Kirkman, S.P. (ed.), Final Report of the BCLME (Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem) Project on Top Predators as Biological Indicators of Ecosystem Change in the BCLME. Avian Demography Unit, UCT, Cape Town.

Khomenko, S., Abolnik, C., Roberts, L., Waller, L., Shaw, K., Monne, I., Taylor, J., Dhingra, M., Pittiglio, C., Mugyeom, M., Roche, X., Fredrick, K., Kamata, A., Okuthe, S., Kone, P., Wiersma, L., Von Dobschuetz, S., Soumare, B., Makonnen Y., Morzaria, S. & Lubroth, J. 2018. 2016–2018 spread of H5N8 highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in sub-Saharan Africa: epidemiological and ecological observations. FOCUS ON 12: Aug 2018, Rome.

Lei, B., Green, J. D. & Pichegru, L. 2014. Extreme microclimate conditions in artificial nests for endangered African penguins. Bird Conservation International 24: 201-213.

Ludynia K, Kemper J, Roux J-P. 2012. The Namibian Islands’ Marine Protected Area: using seabird tracking data to define boundaries and assess their adequacy. Biology Conservation 156: 136–145.

Ludynia K, Roux J-P, Jones R, Kemper J, Underhill LG. 2010. Surviving off junk: Low-energy prey dominates the diet of African penguins Spheniscus demersus at Mercury Island, Namibia, between 1996 and 2009. African Journal of Marine Science 32: 563–572.

Ludynia K. 2007. Identification and characterisation of foraging areas of seabirds in upwelling systems: biological and hydrographic implications for foraging at sea. PhD thesis, University of Kiel, Kiel. http://eldiss.uni-kiel.de/macau/receive/dissertation_diss_00002349.

Makhado, A. B., Crawford, R. J. M., Waller, L. J. & Underhill, L. G. 2013. An assessment of the impact of predation by Cape fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus on seabirds at Dyer Island, South Africa. Ostrich 84: 191–198.

Marine Resources Act 27 of 2000. Regulations relating to Namibian Islands’ Marine Protected Area Government Notice 316 of 2012.

McInnes, A. M., Mcgeorge, C., Pichegru, L., & Pistorius, P. A. 2017. Group foraging increases foraging efficiency in a piscivorous diver, the African penguin. Royal Society Open Science 4(170918): 1-11.

McInnes, A. M., Ryan, P. G., Lacerda, M., & Pichegru, L. 2019. Targeted prey fields determine foraging effort thresholds of a marine diver: important cues for the sustainable management of fisheries. Journal of Applied Ecology 56: 2206–2215.

Molini, U., Aikukutu, G., Roux, R., Kemper, J., Ntahonshikira, C., Marruchella, G., Khaiseb, S., Cattoli, G. & Dundon, W. G. 2020. Avian influenza H5N8 outbreak in African penguins (Spheniscus demersus), Namibia, 2019. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 56(1): 214-218.

Nel, D. C. & Whittington, P. A. 2003. Rehabilitation of oiled African Penguins: a conservation success story.

Petersen, S. L.; Ryan, P. G.; Gremillet, D. 2006. Is food availability limiting African Penguins Spheniscus demersus at Boulders? A comparison of foraging effort at mainland and island colonies. Ibis 148: 14-26.

Pichegru, L. 2013. Increasing breeding success of an Endangered penguin: artificial nests or culling predatory gulls? Bird Conservation International 23: 296–308.

Pichegru, L., Ryan, P. G., Le Bohec, C., van der Lingen, C. D., Navarro R, Petersen, S., Lewis, S., van der Westhuizen, J. & Grémillet, D. 2009. Overlap between vulnerable top predators and fisheries in the Benguela upwelling system: implications for marine protected areas. Marine Ecology Progress Series 391: 199–208.

Pichegru, L., Ryan, P. G., van Eeden, R., Reid, T., Grémillet, D. & Wanless, R. 2012. Industrial fishing, no-take zones and endangered penguins. Biology Conservation 156: 117–125.

Pichegru, L.; Grémillet, D.; Crawford, R. M. J.; Ryan, P. G. 2010. Marine no-take zone rapidly benefits Endangered penguin. Biology Letters http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2009.0913.

Randall RM, Randall BM, Cooper J, La Cock GD, Ross GJB. 1987. Jackass penguin Spheniscus demersus movements, inter-island visits, and settlement. Journal of Field Ornithology 58: 445–455.

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Robinson, W. M. L., Butterworth, D. S. & Plaganyi, E. E. 2015. Quantifying the projected impact of the South African sardine fishery on the Robben Island penguin colony. ICES J. Mar. Sci. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsv035.

Ryan, P. G., Edwards, L. C. & Pichegru, L. 2012. African penguins Spheniscus demersus, bait balls and the Allee effect. Ardea . Ardea 100.

Schwitzer, C., Simpson, N., Roestorf, M. & Sherley, R. B. 2013. The African Penguin Chick Bolstering Project: A One Plan approach to integrated species conservation. WAZA Magazine 14: 23–26.

Shannon, L. J. & Crawford, R. J. M. 1999. Management of the African Penguins Spheniscus demersus – insights from modelling. Marine Ornithology 27: 119–128.

Shelton, P.A., Crawford, R.J.M., Cooper, J., Brooke, R.K. 1984. Distribution, population size and conservation of the Jackass Penguin Spheniscus demersus. South African Journal of Marine Science 2: 217-257.

Sherley R. B., Crawford, R.J. M., de Blocq, A. D., Dyer, B. M., Geldenhuys, D., Hagen, C., Kemper, J., Makhado, A. B., Pichegru. L., Upfold, L., Visagie, J., Waller, L. J. & Winker, H. 2019a. The conservation status and population decline of the African penguin deconstructed in space and time. Department of Environmental Affairs Forestry and Fisheries: FISHERIES/2019/DEC/SWG-PEL/46.

Sherley, R. B., Abadi, F., Ludynia, K., Barham, B. J., Clark, A. E. & Altwegg, R. 2014. Age-specific survival and movement among major African Penguin Spheniscus demersus colonies. Ibis 156: 716–728.

Sherley, R. B., Barham, B. J., Barham, P. J., Campbell, K.J., Crawford, R. J. M., de Blocq, A., Grigg, J., Le Guen, C., Hagen, C., Ludynia, K., Makhado, A. B., McInnes, A., Meyer, A, Morris, T., Pichegru, L., Steinfurth, A., Upfold, L., van Onselen, M., Visagie, J., Weller, F. & Winkher, H. 2019b. A Bayesian approach to understand the overall effect of purse-seine fishing closures around African penguin colonies. Department of Environment, Forestry and Fisheries Report: FISHERIES/2019/NOV/SWG-PEL/32..

Sherley, R. B., Barham, B. J., Barham, P. J., Leshoro, T. M. & Underhill, L. G. 2012. Artificial nests enhance the breeding productivity of African Penguins (Spheniscus demersus) on Robben Island, South Africa. Emu 112: 97–106.

Sherley, R. B., Ludynia, K., Dyer, B. M., Lamont, T., Makhado, A. B., Roux, J-P., Scales, K. L., Underhill, L. G.. & Votier, S. C. 2017. Metapopulation tracking juvenile penguins reveals an ecosystem-wide ecological trap. Current Biology 27: 563–568.

Sherley, R. B., Ludynia, K., Lamont, T., Roux, J. P., Crawford, R. J. M. & Underhill, L. G. 2013a. The initial journey of an endangered penguin: Implications for seabird conservation. Endangered Species Research 21: 89–95.

Sherley, R. B., Underhill, L. G., Barham, B. J., Barham, P. J., Coetzee, J. C., Crawford, R. J. M., Dyer, B. M., Leshoro,, T. M. & Upfold, L. 2013b. Influence of local and regional prey availability on breeding performance of African penguins Spheniscus demersus. Marine Ecology Progress Series 473: 291–301.

Sherley, R. B., Waller, L. J., Strauss, V., Geldenhuys, D., Underhill, L. G. & Parsons, N. J. 2014b. Hand-rearing, release and survival of African penguin chicks abandoned before independence by moulting parents. PLoS ONE 9(10): e110794.

Sherley, R. B., Winker, H., Altwegg, R., van der Lingen, C. D., Votier, S. C., & Crawford, R. J. M. 2015. Bottom-up effects of a no-take zone on endangered penguin demographics. Biology letters 11: 20150237.

Sherley, R.B., Barham, B.J., Barham, P.J., Campbell, K.J., Crawford, R.J.M., Grigg, J., Horswill, C., McInnes, A., Morris, T.L., Pichegru, L., Steinfurth, A., Weller, F., Winker, H. and Votier, S.C. 2018. Bayesian inference reveals positive but subtle effects of experimental fishery closures on marine predator demographics. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 285: 2017-2443.

Underhill, L. G., Crawford, R. J. M., Wolfaardt, A. C., Whittington, P. A., Dyer, B. M., Leshoro, T. M., Ruthenberg, M., Upfold L., & Visagie, J. 2006. Regionally coherent trends in colonies of African Penguins Spheniscus demersus in the Western Cape, South Africa, 1987–2005. African Journal of Marine Science 28: 697–704.

Vanstreels, R. E. T., Parsons, N. J., McGeorge, C., Hurtado, R., Ludynia, K., Waller, L., Ruthenberg, M., Purves, A., Pichegru, L., & Pistorius, P. A. 2019. Identification of land predators of African Penguins Spheniscus demersus through post-mortem examination. Ostrich 90(4): 359-372.

Waller, L. J. 2011. The African Penguin Spheniscus demersus: Conservation and Management Issues. University of Cape Town.

Weller F, Cecchini L-A, Shannon L, Sherley RB, Crawford RJM, Altwegg R, Scott L, Stewart T, Jarre A. 2014. Ecological Modelling. A system dynamics approach to modelling multiple drivers of the African penguin population on Robben Island, South Africa 277: 38–56.

Weller F, Sherley RB, Waller LJ, Ludynia K, Geldenhuys D, Shannon LJ, Jarre A. 2016. System dynamics modelling of the Endangered African penguin populations on Dyer and Robben islands, South Africa. Ecological Modelling 327: 44–56.

Whittington, P., Klages, N., Crawford, R., Wolfaardt, A. and Kemper, J. 2005. Age at first breeding of the African Penguin. Ostrich 76(1&2): 14-20.

Williams, T. D. 1995. The penguins Spheniscidae. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Wilson RP, Wilson MP, McQuaid L. 1986. Group size in African penguins Spheniscus demersus. Ethology 72: 338–341.

Wilson RP, Wilson MT, Duffy D. 1988. Contemporary and historical patterns of African penguin Spheniscus demersus: distribution at sea. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 26: 447–458.

Wilson, R. P. 1985. The jackass penguin (Spheniscus demersus) as a pelagic predator. Marine Ecology Progress Series 25: 219–227.

Wolfaardt AC, Underhill LG, Nel DC, Williams AJ, Visagie J. 2008. Breeding success of African penguins Spheniscus demersus at Dassen Island, especially after oiling following the Apollo Sea oil spill. African Journal of Marine Science 30: 565–580.

Wolfaardt AC, Williams AJ, Underhill LG, Crawford RJM, Whittington PA. 2009. Review of the rescue, rehabilitation and restoration of oiled seabirds in South Africa, especially African penguins Spheniscus demersus and Cape gannets Morus capensis, 1983–2005. African Journal of Marine Science 31: 31–54.

Further resources

IUCN SSC Penguin Specialist Group

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Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Spheniscus demersus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 03/07/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 03/07/2022.