African Penguin Spheniscus demersus


Barham, P. J. ; Underhill, L. G.; Crawford, R. J. M.; Leshoro, T. M. 2007. Differences in breeding success between African Penguins (Spheniscus demersus) that were and were not oiled in the MV Treasure oil-spill in 2000. Emu 107: 7-13.

Connan, M., Hofmeyr, G.J.G., Pistorius, P.A. 2016. Reappraisal of the Trophic Ecology of One of the World’s Most Threatened Spheniscids, the African Penguin. PLoS ONE 11(7): e0159402. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0159402.

Crawford RJM, Altwegg R, Barham BJ, Barham PJ, Durant JM, Dyer BM, Makhado AB, Pichegru L, Ryan PG, Underhill LG, Upfold L, Visagie J, Waller LJ, Whittington PA. 2011. Collapse of South Africa’s penguins in the early 21st century: a consideration of food availability. African Journal of Marine Science 33: 139–156.

Crawford RJM, Cruickshank RA, Shelton PA, Kruger I. 1985. Partitioning of a goby resource amongst four avian predators and evidence of altered trophic flow in the pelagic community of an intense, perennial upwelling system. South African Journal of Marine Science 3: 215–228.

Crawford RJM, Kemper J, Underhill LG. 2013. African penguin Spheniscus demersus. In: Garcia-Borboroglu P, Boersma PD (eds) Penguins: Natural History and Conservation. University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA: 211–231.

Crawford, R. J. M.; David, J. H. M.; Williams, A. J.; Dyer, B. M. 1989. Competition for space: recolonising seals displace endangered, endemic seabirds off Namibia. Biological Conservation 48: 59-79.

Crawford, R.; Ellenberg, U.; Frere, E.; Hagen, C.; Baird, K.; Brewin, P.; Crofts, S.; Glass, J.; Mattern, T.; Pompert, J. 2017. Tangled and drowned: A global review of penguin bycatch in fisheries. Endangered Species Research 34: 373–396.

Crawford, R.J.M.; Barham, P.J.; Underhill, L. G.; Shannon, L.J.; Coetzee, J.C.; Dyer, B.M.; Leshoro, T.M.; Upfold, L. 2006. The influence of food availability on breeding success of African Penguins Spheniscus demersus at Robben Island, South Africa. Biological Conservation 132(1): 119-125.

Crawford, R.J.M.; Boonstra, H.G.V.D. 1994. Counts of moulting and breeding jackass penguins Spheniscus demersus – a comparison at Robben Island, 1988–1993. Marine Ornithology 22(2): 213–219.

Currie H, Grobler CA, Kemper J. 2009. Namibian Islands’ Marine Protected Area. Concept note, background document and management proposal for the declaration of Marine Protected Areas on and around the Namibian offshore islands and adjacent coastal area. Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources, Namibia.

de Villiers, M. 2002. Effect of a storm on breeding African Penguins Spheniscus demersus at Foxy Beach, Boulders Penguin Colony, Simon's Town. Bird Numbers 11: 7-9.

Ellis, S.; Croxall, J.P.; Cooper, J. 1998. Penguin conservation assessment and management plan: report from the workshop held 8-9 September 1996, Cape Town, South Africa. IUCN/SSC, Apple Valley, USA.

Frost PGH, Siegfried WR, Burger AE. 1976. Behavioural adaptations of the Jackass penguin, Spheniscus demersus to a hot, arid environment. Journal of Zoology 179: 165–187.

Frost, P.G.H.; Siegfried, W.R.; Cooper, J. 1976. Conservation of the jackass penguin (Spheniscus demersus (L.)). Biological Conservation 9: 79–99.

Hagen C, Sherley RB, Steinfurth A, Pichegru L, Robinson K, Jarre A, Crawford RJM, Winker H, Altwegg R, van der Merwe L, McInnes A. 2014. An evaluation of the evidence of the impact of fishing closures around breeding colonies of African Penguins. Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries: MARAM/IWS/DEC14/PENG/A3: 1–28.

Harrison, J.A.; Allan, D.G.; Underhill, L.G.; Herremans, M.; Tree, A.J.; Parker, V.; Brown, C.J. 1997. The Atlas of Southern African Birds. BirdLife South Africa, Johannesburg.

Hockey, P. 2001. Struik Winchester, Cape Town, South Africa.

Hockey, P.A.R.; Dean, W.R.J.; Ryan, P.G. 2005. Roberts Birds of Southern Africa. Trustees of the John Voelcker Bird Book Fund, Cape Town, South Africa.

Kemper J. 2015. Birds to watch in Namibia. Red, rare and endemic species. Ministry of Environment and Tourism, and Namibia Nature Foundation, Windhoek: 183–185.

Kemper, J.; Underhill, L.G.; Roux, J.-P. 2007. Artificial burrows for African penguins at Halifax Island: Do they improve breeding success? In: Kirkman, S.P. (ed.), Final Report of the BCLME (Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem) Project on Top Predators as Biological Indicators of Ecosystem Change in the BCLME. Avian Demography Unit, UCT, Cape Town.

Kemper, J.; Underhill, L.G.; Roux, J.-P.; Bartlett, P.A.; Chesselet, Y.J.; James, J.A.C.; Jones, R.; Uhongora, N.-N.; Wepener, S. 2007. Breeding patterns and factors influencing breeding success of African Penguins Spheniscus demersus in Namibia. In: Kirkman, S.P. (ed.), Final Report of the BCLME (Benguela Current Large Marine Ecosystem) Project on Top Predators as Biological Indicators of Ecosystem Change in the BCLME. Avian Demography Unit, UCT, Cape Town.

Lei B, Green JD, Pichegru L. 2014. Extreme microclimate conditions in artificial nests for endangered African penguins. Bird Conservation International 24: 201-213.

Ludynia K, Kemper J, Roux J-P. 2012. The Namibian Islands’ Marine Protected Area: using seabird tracking data to define boundaries and assess their adequacy. Biology Conservation 156: 136–145.

Ludynia K, Roux J-P, Jones R, Kemper J, Underhill LG. 2010. Surviving off junk: Low-energy prey dominates the diet of African penguins Spheniscus demersus at Mercury Island, Namibia, between 1996 and 2009. African Journal of Marine Science 32: 563–572.

Ludynia K. 2007. Identification and characterisation of foraging areas of seabirds in upwelling systems: biological and hydrographic implications for foraging at sea. PhD thesis, University of Kiel, Kiel. http://eldiss.uni-kiel.de/macau/receive/dissertation_diss_00002349.

Makhado AB, Crawford RJM, Waller LJ, Underhill LG. 2013. An assessment of the impact of predation by Cape fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus on seabirds at Dyer Island, South Africa. Ostrich 84: 191–198.

Nel, D. C.; Whittington, P. A. 2003. Rehabilitation of oiled African Penguins: a conservation success story.

Petersen, S. L.; Ryan, P. G.; Gremillet, D. 2006. Is food availability limiting African Penguins Spheniscus demersus at Boulders? A comparison of foraging effort at mainland and island colonies. Ibis 148: 14-26.

Pichegru L, Ryan PG, Le Bohec C, van der Lingen CD, Navarro R, Petersen S, Lewis S, van der Westhuizen J, Grémillet D. 2009. Overlap between vulnerable top predators and fisheries in the Benguela upwelling system: implications for marine protected areas. Marine Ecology Progress Series 391: 199–208.

Pichegru L, Ryan PG, van Eeden R, Reid T, Grémillet D, Wanless R. 2012. Industrial fishing, no-take zones and endangered penguins. Biology Conservation 156: 117–125.

Pichegru L. 2013. Increasing breeding success of an Endangered penguin: artificial nests or culling predatory gulls? Bird Conservation International 23: 296–308.

Pichegru, L.; Grémillet, D.; Crawford, R. M. J.; Ryan, P. G. 2010. Marine no-take zone rapidly benefits Endangered penguin. Biology Letters http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2009.0913.

Randall RM, Randall BM, Cooper J, La Cock GD, Ross GJB. 1987. Jackass penguin Spheniscus demersus movements, inter-island visits, and settlement. Journal of Field Ornithology 58: 445–455.

Roberts J. 2015. African Penguins (Spheniscus demersus) distribution during the non-breeding season: preparation for, and recovery from, a moulting fast. MSc thesis. University of Cape Town..

Robinson WML, Butterworth DS, Plaganyi EE. 2015. Quantifying the projected impact of the South African sardine fishery on the Robben Island penguin colony. ICES J. Mar. Sci. doi:10.1093/icesjms/fsv035.

Ryan PG, Edwards LC, Pichegru L. 2012. African penguins Spheniscus demersus, bait balls and the Allee effect. Ardea . Ardea 100.

Schwitzer C, Simpson N, Roestorf M, Sherley RB. 2013. The African Penguin Chick Bolstering Project: A One Plan approach to integrated species conservation. WAZA Magazine 14: 23–26.

Shannon LJ, Crawford RJM. 1999. Management of the African Penguins Spheniscus demersus – insights from modelling. Marine Ornithology 27: 119–128.

Shelton, P.A., Crawford, R.J.M., Cooper, J., Brooke, R.K. 1984. Distribution, population size and conservation of the Jackass Penguin Spheniscus demersus. South African Journal of Marine Science 2: 217-257.

Sherley RB, Abadi F, Ludynia K, Barham BJ, Clark AE, Altwegg R. 2014. Age-specific survival and movement among major African Penguin Spheniscus demersus colonies. Ibis 156: 716–728.

Sherley RB, Barham BJ, Barham PJ, Leshoro TM, Underhill LG. 2012. Artificial nests enhance the breeding productivity of African Penguins (Spheniscus demersus) on Robben Island, South Africa. Emu 112: 97–106.

Sherley RB, Waller LJ, Strauss V, Geldenhuys D, Underhill LG, Parsons NJ. 2014b. Hand-rearing, release and survival of African penguin chicks abandoned before independence by moulting parents. PLoS ONE 9(10): e110794.

Sherley RB, Winker H, Altwegg R, van der Lingen CD, Votier SC, Crawford RJM. 2015. Bottom-up effects of a no-take zone on endangered penguin demographics. Biology letters 11: 20150237.

Sherley RB. 2016. A Bayesian approach to understand the effect sizes, power, uncertainty and demographic impact associated with purse-seine fishing closures around African penguin colonies. Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries report: 1–19.

Sherley, R.B.; Ludynia, K.; Lamont, T.; Roux, J.P.; Crawford, R.J.M.; Underhill, L.G. 2013. The initial journey of an endangered penguin: Implications for seabird conservation. Endangered Species Research 21: 89–95.

Sherley, R.B.; Underhill, L.G.; Barham, B.J.; Barham, P.J.; Coetzee, J.C.; Crawford, R.J.M.; Dyer, B.M.; Leshoro, T.M.; Upfold, L. 2013. Influence of local and regional prey availability on breeding performance of African penguins Spheniscus demersus. Marine Ecology Progress Series 473: 291–301.

Underhill LG, Crawford RJM, Wolfaardt AC, Whittington PA, Dyer BM, Leshoro TM, Ruthenberg M, Upfold L, Visagie J. 2006. Regionally coherent trends in colonies of African Penguins Spheniscus demersus in the Western Cape, South Africa, 1987–2005. African Journal of Marine Science 28: 697–704.

Waller, LJ. 2011. The African Penguin Spheniscus demersus: Conservation and Management Issues. University of Cape Town.

Weller F, Cecchini L-A, Shannon L, Sherley RB, Crawford RJM, Altwegg R, Scott L, Stewart T, Jarre A. 2014. Ecological Modelling. A system dynamics approach to modelling multiple drivers of the African penguin population on Robben Island, South Africa 277: 38–56.

Weller F, Sherley RB, Waller LJ, Ludynia K, Geldenhuys D, Shannon LJ, Jarre A. 2016. System dynamics modelling of the Endangered African penguin populations on Dyer and Robben islands, South Africa. Ecological Modelling 327: 44–56.

Whittington, P., Klages, N., Crawford, R., Wolfaardt, A. and Kemper, J. 2005. Age at first breeding of the African Penguin. Ostrich 76(1&2): 14-20.

Williams, T. D. 1995. The penguins Spheniscidae. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Wilson RP, Wilson MP, McQuaid L. 1986. Group size in African penguins Spheniscus demersus. Ethology 72: 338–341.

Wilson RP, Wilson MT, Duffy D. 1988. Contemporary and historical patterns of African penguin Spheniscus demersus: distribution at sea. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 26: 447–458.

Wilson RP. 1985. The jackass penguin (Spheniscus demersus) as a pelagic predator. Marine Ecology Progress Series 25: 219–227.

Wolfaardt AC, Underhill LG, Nel DC, Williams AJ, Visagie J. 2008. Breeding success of African penguins Spheniscus demersus at Dassen Island, especially after oiling following the Apollo Sea oil spill. African Journal of Marine Science 30: 565–580.

Wolfaardt AC, Williams AJ, Underhill LG, Crawford RJM, Whittington PA. 2009. Review of the rescue, rehabilitation and restoration of oiled seabirds in South Africa, especially African penguins Spheniscus demersus and Cape gannets Morus capensis, 1983–2005. African Journal of Marine Science 31: 31–54.

Further resources

IUCN SSC Penguin Specialist Group

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Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Spheniscus demersus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/11/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/11/2020.