African Darter Anhinga rufa


BirdLife International. 2015. European Red List of Birds. Office for Official Publications of the European Communities, Luxembourg.

Brown, L.H., Urban, E.K. and Newman, K. 1982. The Birds of Africa, Volume I. Academic Press, London.

del Hoyo, J., Collar, N. and Garcia, E.F.J. 2016. African Darter (Anhinga rufa). In: J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, J. Sargatal, D.A. Christie and E. de Juana (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

del Hoyo, J., Elliot, A. and Sargatal, J. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Hockey, P.A.R., Dean, W.R.J. and Ryan, P.G. 2005. Roberts birds of southern Africa. Trustees of the John Voelcker Bird Book Fund, Cape Town, South Africa.

Johnsgard, P. A. 1993. Cormorants, darters, and pelicans of the world. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington.

Kirwan, G., Demirci, B., Welch, H., Boyla, K., Özen, M., Castell, P. and Marlow, T. 2010. The Birds of Turkey. Bloomsbury Publishing.

Ntahuga, L. 2000. Impact of African traditions on avian conservation in Burundi. Ostrich 71(1&2): 21.

Smith, K.G., Barrios, V., Darwall, D.R.T. and Numa, C. 2014. The Status and Distribution of Freshwater Biodiversity in the Eastern Mediterranean. IUCN, Cambridge, UK, Malaga, Spain and Gland, Switzerland.

Wetlands International. 2016. Waterbird Population Estimates. Available at:

Further resources

Detailed species account from European Red List of Birds (BirdLife International 2015)

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Anhinga rufa. Downloaded from on 22/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 22/02/2024.