LC
African Darter Anhinga rufa



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 35,700,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2016
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 8.8 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated at 25,500-127,000 (Wetlands International 2016).

Trend justification: The overall trend is decreasing, although some populations may be stable (Wetlands International 2016).  The species became regionally extinct in Europe during the 20th century (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Angola N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant Yes
Burundi N Extant Yes
Cameroon N Extant Yes
Central African Republic N Extant Yes
Chad N Extant Yes
Comoros V Extant Yes
Congo N Extant Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant Yes
Egypt V Extant Yes
Equatorial Guinea N Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Eswatini N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Gabon N Extant Yes
Gambia N Extant Yes
Ghana N Extant Yes
Guinea N Extant Yes
Guinea-Bissau N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Israel N Extinct Yes
Jordan N Extinct Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Lesotho N Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant Yes
Madagascar N Extant Yes
Malawi N Extant Yes
Mali N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Mozambique N Extant Yes
Namibia N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant Yes
Nigeria N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Sierra Leone N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant
Syria N Extinct Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extinct Yes
Uganda N Extant Yes
Yemen V Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant Yes
Zimbabwe N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Botswana Okavango Delta
Gambia Islands of the Central River Division
Guinea-Bissau Rio Tombali, Rio Cumbijã and Ilha de Melo
Somalia Xawaadley reservoir
Tanzania Ugalla River Game Reserve
Tanzania Wembere steppe
South Africa Spitskop Dam
South Africa Sandveld and Bloemhof Dam Nature Reserves
Iraq Sinnaf Seasonal Wetlands
Iraq Hawizeh
Iraq Haur Al Hammar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains
Congo Lake Télé Community Reserve
Mauritania Chott Boul
Senegal Djoudj wetlands

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable resident
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable resident
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable resident
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes suitable resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Anhinga rufa. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 05/08/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 05/08/2020.