Red List Category
for more information about the Red List categories and criteria
Justification of Red List category
This species is listed as Vulnerable because it is undergoing a rapid population reduction, particularly in the key Alaskan populations. Further studies are needed to determine the causes of these declines, and whether some populations may have shifted to unsurveyed areas within the range.
Distribution size (breeding/resident):
Land-mass type - continent - Continents are land masses > bigger than Australia (=7,682,300 sq km).
Realm - Nearctic - realm
Realm - Palearctic - realm
IUCN Ecosystem -- Freshwater biome
IUCN Ecosystem -- Marine biome