This is another remote mountainous area at the trijunction of India, Bhutan and China (Tibet). Much of its border is under the control of the Army. Owing to altitudinal variation from 2,000 to >5,000 m, the forest cover varies from Temperate Conifer and Broadleaf to Subalpine and Alpine Scrub. It also has high altitudes lakes, good sites for breeding waterfowl of which Ruddy Shelduck Tadorna ferruginea has been confirmed (A. U. Choudhury pers. comm. 2003).
AVIFAUNA: Detailed information on the bird life is not available. Singh (1999) and his team have seen 118 species during six days of bird watching in the Towang-Zeminthang area between 1,770 and 4,900 m above msl. They added the following species for Arunachal Pradesh from this site: Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus, Upland Buzzard Buteo hemilasius, White-browed Tit-Warbler Leptopoecile sophiae and Streaked Rosefinch Carpodacus rubicilloides.
This is the second site in Arunachal Pradesh where Black-necked Crane Grus nigricollis, a Vulnerable species (BirdLife International, 2001) is found (Choudhury 2000). The exact location where these cranes are found in winter is Zemithang Valley on the banks of Nyamjang Chu (Chu = river). Zeminthang is 95 km from Tawang and 250 km from the Sangti Valley by road, and only 20 km and 65 km respectively as the crow flies. Sangti Valley (an IBA) is another site where the Black-necked Crane is regularly found (Choudhury 2001). The Zemithang Valley is about 1.5 km long and 0.5 km wide, and at 2,000 m, compared to 1,500 m of the Sangti Valley. The local Buddhists revere and do not harm this species, locally called Thung-thung karmo. Since time immemorial, two to four birds visit this valley. Up to 7 have been reported earlier.
This site is also important for biome-restricted species. For Biome-5 (Eurasian High Montane - Alpine and Tibetan), found above 3,600 m, BirdLife International (undated) has listed 48 species. Of these, some interesting species found in this IBA are the Himalayan Griffon Gyps himalayensis, Snow Partridge Lerwa lerwa, Black-necked Crane Grus nigricollis, Ibisbill Ibidorhyncha struthersii, Snow Pigeon Columba leuconota, Grey-backed Shrike Lanius tephronotus, Blood Pheasant Ithaginis cruentus, and Satyr Tragopan Tragopan satyra.
The site is included in the Eastern Himalayas Endemic Bird Area (Stattersfield et al. 1998). BirdLife International (undated) has listed 21 species from this EBA. Seven species have been identified, but a thorough survey would reveal many more.
OTHER KEY FAUNA: High altitude mammals include Bharal Pseudois nayaur, Takin Budorcas taxicolor, Snow Leopard Uncia uncia, Goral Nemorhaedus goral, Musk Deer Moschus chrysogaster, Serow Naemorhedus sumatraensis, Asiatic Black Bear Ursus thibetanus and possibly Brown Bear Ursus arctos in the extreme north of this IBA. Red Panda Ailurus fulgens, Assamese Macaque Macaca assamensis and Capped Langur Trachypithecus pileatus also occur.
BirdLife International (2020) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Zemithang - Nelya. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/02/2020.