Camiguin Sur is a mountainous, actively volcanic island c.10 km off the north coast of Mindanao. It rises steeply from the sea, and is dominated by several steep volcanic cones in the west and centre of the island, Mt Timpoong, Mt Mambajao, Mt Tres Marias and Mt Hibok Hibok. The more level ground close to the coast has been cleared for agriculture and coconut plantations, but primary forests (mainly of low stature) cover most of the high mountains in the centre of the island, especially above 500 m. Mantigue Island is a small (c.3 ha), flat coral island off the eastern coast of Camiguin. It supports a beach-type forest dominated by ipil Intsia bijuga and bitaog Callophyllum inophyllum, and has an extensive sandy-coralline tidal flat that is exposed at low tide. Mt Timpoong-Hibok Hibok is a 3,337 ha watershed in the interior of Camiguin Island. Mossy forests are found at 1,100m and above and cover c.300 ha. Residual lowland dipterocarp forest covers c.1,282 ha, while brushland and open grassland cover another 1,585 ha. The same primary lowland forest was extant in 1995. A 828 ha plantation forest and reforestation site is planted with exotic tree species such as Gmelina arborea, Swietenia macrophylla and Acacia mangium. Tourism is one of the main sources of income on the island, from visitors attracted by the islands’ pristine white sand beaches and hot springs and pools. Mountain climbing is also a popular tourist activity on the island.
Two of the restricted-range species of the Mindanao and Eastern Visayas Endemic Bird Area have been recorded on Camiguin, including Yellowish Bulbul, which is represented on the island by an endemic subspecies, and it is likely that more restricted-range and threatened birds occur there. Three other subspecies are endemic to the island, and during a short visit in 1997 it was found that Black-naped Monarch Hypothymis azurea catarmanensis was apparently rare and Orange-bellied Flowerpecker Dicaeum trigonostigma isidroi was common in secondary growth. Golden-yellow White-eye Zosterops nigrorum catarmanensis was not encountered, perhaps because it occurs only at high altitudes or in good quality forest. Mantigue Island supports both resident and migrant shorebird species.
Non-bird biodiversity: Two island endemic species of mice (Apomys and Bullimus) were discovered on Camiguin during a survey in 1995, and an endemic species of frog Oreophryne nana occurs there. Mantigue Island supports both resident and migrant shorebird species, and three species of marine turtle species nest on the island, Green Turtle Chelonia mydas, Hawksbill Turtle Eretmochelys imbricata and Loggerhead Turtle Caretta caretta.
BirdLife International (2018) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Timpoong and Hibok-hibok Natural Monument. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/06/2018.