Terra Nova National Park is a large park on the eastern coast of Newfoundland situated on the inner reaches of Bonavista Bay. The Trans-Canada Highway runs through the park, which otherwise has few roads. Much of the terrain in this park of rolling hills is forested the main tree species being Black Spruce, Balsam Fir, White Birch and Tamarack. There are many water features including numerous small and large lakes, and on the upland plateaus fens and bogs are found. Higher areas are sometimes rocky and barren.
The forests, wetlands and coasts of Terra Nova National Park host many bird species. Of particular note are two Newfoundland forest bird subspecies that have small ranges. Subspecies that have ranges of less than 50,000 km2 are considered restricted-range subspecies on a national level. The Red Crossbill (subspecies pusilla) is widespread but uncommon within the park. Buckleys Cove and the Louil Hills trail are two locations where Red Crossbills can be found year-round. The Ovenbird (subspecies furvoir) is also a restricted-range subspecies, but it chooses quite different forests than the crossbill. This subspecies is not widespread because its preferred habitat of deciduous forests is less common in the park. Other warblers found in association with the Ovenbird are Mourning Warbler, Wilsons Warbler and American Redstart.
A wide variety of other birds can be seen in the park, from shorebirds, waterfowl and alcids on the coast, to bog and boreal forest birds inland. The flats at the outlet of Big Brook and innermost Newman Sound are an excellent place to see shorebirds, waterfowl and gulls. There are at least six colonies of terns in the park, totally from 1,000 to 1,500 pairs larger colonies tend to be both Arctic and Common terns, while smaller ones are all Common Terns. Elsewhere, Swamp Sparrow, Lincolns Sparrow, Canada Goose, and Greater Yellowlegs are some of the breeding birds that can be found in the bogs and fens. Forest birds such as Northern Goshawk, Boreal Owl, Black-backed Woodpecker, Gray-cheeked Thrush, Ruby-crowned Kinglet and Olive-sided Flycatcher are just some of the many other species recorded in the park.
BirdLife International (2020) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Terra Nova National Park. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/09/2020.