(I) Physical CharacteristicsThe island lies east of Tawau, on the east coast of Sabah was formed during the Pliocene and Quaternary period (Wong, 1991).(II) Climatic ConditionsGenerally hot and dry throughout the year with calm seas during March-July and wet and rough from October onwards (WWFM, 1998).
Pulau Sipadan may be one of the islands utilized by the small-island pigeons such as the Grey Imperial-pigeon, considering its relatively small known range and the increasing scarcity of suitable islands that they can inhabit (Lambert, 1993). Small populations of the Near Threatened Megapode Megapodius freycinet and resident Nicobar Pigeon Caloenas nicobarica have also been recorded on the island (Smythies, 1999; Sheldon et al., 2001)
Non-bird biodiversity: The land-based Robber Crab is indigenous to the island (Wong, 1991) and is listed as rare internationally (Wells et al., 1983). The coral reefs and marine life surrounding the island is well known for its rich diversity globally (Wood, 1987: Wong, 1991; Nichols and Stachels, 1999).(I) Globally threatened mammals (IUCN, 2002): None.(II) Globally threatened reptiles (IUCN, 2002): CRITICAL: Hawksbill Turtle Eretmochelys imbricata; ENDANGERED: Green Turtle Chelonia mydas
BirdLife International (2019) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Sipadan islands. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/10/2019.