Simien Mountains National Park

Country/territory: Ethiopia

IBA criteria met: A1, A2, A3 (1996)
For more information about IBA criteria, please click here

Area: 110,000 ha

Ethiopian Wildlife and Natural History Society
IBA conservation status
Year of assessment (most recent) State (condition) Pressure (threat) Response (action)
1996 very unfavourable medium low
For more information about IBA monitoring, please click here

Site description (2001 baseline)
Simen Mountains National Park is on the northern edge of the Ethiopian central plateau, overlooking the Tekeze gorge. It is 132 km from Gondar, the capital for North Gondar Zone. The park is scenically dramatic, and comprises a narrow strip of land along the top of the cliffs (at 3,300–3,800 m), the cliffs themselves, with sheer drops of c.1,000 m, and another strip of land at the bottom (down to c.1,900 m). The highest peak in the park is 4,430 m. The main habitats are: Afro-alpine grassland on the highest areas; ericaceous forest below 3,500 m and, on the steep slopes at the top of the gorge, a mixture of tussock-grasses; cliff-hanging herbs and small shrubs on the cliffs; and montane coniferous forest and grassland at the lowest altitudes. There are also fast-flowing, permanent streams, very high waterfalls and rocky areas. The Afro-alpine flora is important because it contains a high proportion of regional and local endemics. For example, 10 species of grass (19%) recorded from the Simen area are endemics. The grassland is dominated by tussock-grasses including Festuca gilbertiana, which is only known from the Geech plateau in Simen. The most conspicuous plants at these high altitudes (all Afro-alpine endemics) are giant Lobelia species and Kniphofia foliosa. A stonecrop, Rosularia semiensis, is also endemic to the Simen mountains. The dominant tree of the ericaceous belt is Erica arborea with patches of Hypericum revolutum and H. quartinianum. Few areas of pristine Erica forest (i.e. where trees meet overhead and the ground is covered with grasses and other herbs) remain. Those that do are where the slopes are too steep for men to climb down and cut trees. Crops are cultivated and domestic animals graze throughout the area, even on the steep slopes. On the plateau, barley is the only crop grown, while at lower altitudes the cereals are more typical of the highlands. The villagers of Geech weave traditional cotton cloth, and the park employs a number of local people.

Key biodiversity
See Box and Tables 2 and 3 for key species. Over 137 species are known to occur within the park, including a high proportion of the Afrotropical Highlands biome assemblage such as Francolinus castaneicollis, Agapornis taranta, Tauraco leucotis, Thamnolaea semirufa, Psuedoalcippe abyssinica, Onychognathus albirostris and Oriolus monacha. Below the escarpment four Somali–Masai biome species and one Sudan–Guinea Savanna species have been recorded. The park is thought to support important populations of Vanellus melanocephalus on the Geech plateau and, on the cliffs, Columba albitorques, Thamnolaea semirufa and the restricted-range Myrmecocichla melaena. During the 1960s it was suggested that Vanellus melanocephalus bred on the Geech plateau, but there are no recent reports to confirm this. A small population of Macronyx flavicollis is known to be present. A small population of Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax lives on the Geech plateau, apparently entirely separate from the population in the Bale mountains, the only other population of this bird in the region. This area is particularly rich in raptors and vultures. Small numbers of Circus macrourus are recorded seasonally and Gypaetus barbatus and Buteo augur are generally common throughout the park. Other spectacular species include Aquila wahlbergi, A. verreauxii, Polemaetus bellicosus, Spizaetus africanus, Accipiter rufiventris, Falco alopex, Bubo capensis and Asio abyssinicus.

Non-bird biodiversity: The most abundant large mammal is the endemic Theropithecus gelada (LR/nt). Other large herbivores include Capra walia (CR) and the endemic Tragelaphus scriptus meneliki. There are also numerous rodents, including two endemic species of rat, that live in the Afro-alpine grasslands. Canis simensis (CR) also occurs. A number of endemic plants are mentioned above under ‘Site description’.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Important Bird Area factsheet: Simien Mountains National Park. Downloaded from on 22/02/2024.