IBA Criteria met: A1, A2 (2016)
For more information about IBA criteria please click here
Area: 11,031 ha
Most recent IBA monitoring assessment
Year of assessment
Threat score (pressure)
Condition score (state)
Action score (response)
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Mumoni Hill Forest emerges as 'inselberg' from arid scrub land vegetation at 600 m plains, rising to 1800 m above sea level.
The Climate is arid and semi arid with characteristic erratic and unreliable rainfall. Mean annual rainfall ranges from as low as 500 mm in the lowlands to over 1050 mm in the hilltop. The site experiences two rain seasons, long rains between March to June and Short rains between October and December.
Temperature and evaporation rates are generally high with February and September being the hottest months of the year. Minimum mean annual temperatures vary between 140 to 220 C while maximum mean annual temperatures vary between 260 C to 340C.
Its an important site for raptors, including Afro tropical and Palaerctic migrants. It hosts the following key species: Hinde's Pied- babbler and Martial Eagle (Vulnerable), Southern Banded Snake-eagle, Pallid Harrier and Crowned Eagle (Near Threatened). The site also holds 15 species of the Somali-Masai Biome, four species of Afro tropical highland and two species characteristic of the East African Coast . More than 200 species have been recorded at the site with a higher diversity in the low lands.
The Taita toad, Bufo taitanus, which was previously only known to be restricted to the Taita hills, and the Pancake Tortoise Malacochersus tornieri were recorded in 2006 surveys.
375 plant species were identified in 2006.
A total of 9 species of reptiles and amphibians have been recorded here too.
BirdLife International (2019) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Mumoni Hill Forest Reserve. Downloaded from
http://www.birdlife.org on 11/11/2019.