Extensive, mainly oak-hornbeam and beech forests are the prevailing habitat in this hilly area. The foothills are covered with meadows, including wet meadows in the valleys of streams, mosaics of arable land and intensively cultivated agricultural land. Kalnik is the only known recent breeding locality of Booted Eagle. The area is internationally important for nesting of Middle Spotted Woodpecker. The main threats to birds are intensified forest management, excessive or illegal hunting and agricultural intensification.