Mt Timolan is c.20 km inland from Pagadian City, to the south of Mt Sugarloaf (PH109). It rises to just over 1,000 m. Lowland forest is reported to cover c.80% of the area and there are also areas of secondary grassland. There are numerous rivers and streams and freshwater lakes and pools that provide habitat for water birds, including Lake Timolan, which has been transformed into a marshy area. Arable land is present, and is planted with perennial crops and orchards. The forests serve as watershed for surrounding lowland communities and contains the headwaters of the Dinas and Labangan Rivers.
The avifauna of Mt Timolan is poorly known, although there are several recent records of Philippine Eagle and the forests there are probably an important part of the network of sites required for the conservation of that critically endangered species. The lowland forests which are reported to survive there may support populations of the threatened and restricted-range species of the Mindanao and Eastern Visayas Endemic Bird Area, including some that have been recorded on the lower slopes of nearby Mt Sugarloaf (PH109) and Mt Malindang (PH107).
Non-bird biodiversity: Other wildlife reported in the area includes Philippine Tarsier Tarsius syrichta, Philippine warty pig Sus philippensis, squirrels, probably Exilisciurus concinnus and Sundasciurus philippinensis, common palm civet Paradoxurus hermaphroditus and monitor lizard Varanus salvator.
BirdLife International (2023) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Mount Timolan. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 04/02/2023.