The top of the mountain is unvegetated. Below this is a band of mixed Pinus and Castanea woodland, with olive-groves in the lowland area. Human activities include livestock-farming, forestry and quarrying.
This is an important site for species typical of Pinus forest and non-intensive olive groves. Breeding birds include six of the 21 species in Europe that are restricted (when breeding) to the Mediterranean biome.
BirdLife International (2020) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Mount Olympos and pine forest of central Lesvos. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/06/2020.