Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay

IBA Criteria

Year of most recent IBA criteria assessment: 1994

Populations of IBA trigger species
Species Current IUCN Red List Category Season Year(s) of estimate Population estimate IBA Criteria Triggered
Black Francolin Francolinus francolinus LC resident 1977 common B2
White-headed Duck Oxyura leucocephala EN winter 1977 20-453 individuals A1, A4i, B1i, B2
Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus LC winter 1970-1977 16 individuals A4i, B1i
Red-breasted Goose Branta ruficollis VU winter 1975-1976 19 individuals A1, B2
Greylag Goose Anser anser LC winter 1970-1977 10,020 individuals A4i, B1i
Lesser White-fronted Goose Anser erythropus VU winter 1970-1977 4,900 individuals A1, A4i, B1i, B2
Common Goldeneye Bucephala clangula LC winter 1970-1977 1,110 individuals A4i, B1i
Red-breasted Merganser Mergus serrator LC winter 1970-1977 703 individuals A4i, B1i
Common Shelduck Tadorna tadorna LC winter 1977-1992 1,200-1,605 individuals A4i, B1i
Marbled Teal Marmaronetta angustirostris VU passage 1977 29 individuals A1, B2
Common Pochard Aythya ferina VU winter 1977-1992 2,680-22,500 individuals A4i, B1i
Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula LC winter 1977-1992 7,750-8,000 individuals A4i, B1i
Garganey Spatula querquedula LC passage 1977 3,640 individuals A4i, B1i
Northern Shoveler Spatula clypeata LC winter 1970-1977 18,200 individuals A4i, B1i
Gadwall Mareca strepera LC winter 1970-1977 20,300 individuals A4i, B1i
Eurasian Wigeon Mareca penelope LC winter 1970-1977 61,100-61,600 individuals A4i, B1i
Mallard Anas platyrhynchos LC winter 1977-1992 9,800-56,600 individuals A4i, B1i
Northern Pintail Anas acuta LC winter 1977-1992 3,400-30,400 individuals A4i, B1i
Common Teal Anas crecca LC winter 1970-1977 57,000 individuals A4i, B1i
Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus LC winter 1970-1977 3,000 individuals A4i, B1i
Black-necked Grebe Podiceps nigricollis LC winter 1970-1977 2,000 individuals A4i, B1i
Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus LC winter 1977-1992 4,250-25,080 individuals A4i, B1i
Common Coot Fulica atra LC winter 1977-1992 19,100-50,000 individuals A4i, B1i
Little Bustard Tetrax tetrax NT winter 1972 602 individuals A1, B2
Little Bustard Tetrax tetrax NT breeding 1973 4 breeding pairs B2
Red-throated Loon Gavia stellata LC winter 1977 2 individuals A4i, B1i
Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia LC passage 1977 423 individuals B1i
Squacco Heron Ardeola ralloides LC breeding 1977 200 breeding pairs B1i
Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis LC passage 1977 150 individuals B1i
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea LC passage 1977 1,860 individuals A4i, B1i
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea LC winter 1970-1977 630 individuals B1i
Great White Egret Ardea alba LC winter 1970-1977 2,685 individuals A4i, B1i
Little Egret Egretta garzetta LC breeding 1977 100 breeding pairs B1i
Little Egret Egretta garzetta LC passage 1977 450 individuals B1i
Dalmatian Pelican Pelecanus crispus NT winter 1977-1992 350-690 individuals A1, A4i, B1i, B2
Pygmy Cormorant Microcarbo pygmaeus LC winter 1977 28 individuals A1
Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo LC winter 1970-1977 15,000 individuals A4i, B1i
Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta LC winter 1970-1977 816 individuals A4i, B1i
Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus LC passage 1977 938 individuals A4i, B1i
Black-winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus LC winter 1970-1977 140 individuals B1i
Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola LC passage 1977 500 individuals B1i
Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus LC passage 1977 1,350 individuals A4i, B1i
Northern Lapwing Vanellus vanellus NT winter 1970-1977 1,500 individuals A4i, B1i
Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus LC passage 1977 880 individuals B1i
Slender-billed Curlew Numenius tenuirostris CR passage 1963 1 individuals A1, A4i, B1i
Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata NT passage 1977 530 individuals B1i
Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa NT passage 1977 3,770 individuals A4i, B1i
Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa NT winter 1970-1977 800 individuals B1i
Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres LC passage 1977 562 individuals B1i
Sanderling Calidris alba LC passage 1977 4,820 individuals A4i, B1i
Dunlin Calidris alpina LC winter 1970-1977 5,000 individuals A4i, B1i
Common Redshank Tringa totanus LC passage 1977 1,810 individuals B1i
Common Redshank Tringa totanus LC winter 1970-1977 650 individuals B1i
Marsh Sandpiper Tringa stagnatilis LC passage 1977 563 individuals B1i
Collared Pratincole Glareola pratincola LC breeding 1977 500 breeding pairs A4i, B1i
Little Gull Hydrocoloeus minutus LC winter 1970-1977 750 individuals B1i
Slender-billed Gull Larus genei LC passage 1977 2,950 individuals A4i, B1i
Black-headed Gull Larus ridibundus LC winter 1970-1977 5,000 individuals A4i, B1i
Pallas's Gull Larus ichthyaetus LC winter 1970-1977 2,250 individuals A4i, B1i
Mew Gull Larus canus LC winter 1977 400 individuals B1i
Little Tern Sternula albifrons LC breeding 1977 300-400 breeding pairs A4i, B1i
Little Tern Sternula albifrons LC passage 1977 1,370 individuals A4i, B1i
Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida LC passage 1977 820 individuals B1i
Sandwich Tern Thalasseus sandvicensis LC passage 1977 1,450 individuals A4i, B1i
Caspian Gull Larus cachinnans LC passage 1977 1,850 individuals B1i
Eastern Imperial Eagle Aquila heliaca VU winter 1977 6 individuals B2
White-tailed Sea-eagle Haliaeetus albicilla LC winter 1977 50-100 individuals A1, B2
Saker Falcon Falco cherrug EN winter 1977 4 individuals B2
A4iii Species group - waterbirds n/a winter 1977-1992 100,000-499,999 individuals A4iii

Note: This table presents the IBA criteria triggered and the species that triggered then at the time of assessment, the current IUCN Red List category may vary from that which was in place at that time.

For more information about the IBA assessment process and criteria please click here

IBA Monitoring

Most recent IBA monitoring assessment
Year of assessment Threat score (pressure) Condition score (state) Action score (response)
1994 low not assessed not assessed
Was the whole site covered? Yes State assessed by unset
Accuracy of information good

Threats to the site (pressure)
Threat Level 1 Threat Level 2 Timing Scope Severity Result
Transportation and service corridors roads and railroads likely in short term (within 4 years) some of area/population (10-49%) no or imperceptible deterioration low

Conservation actions taken at site (response)
Conservation Designation Management Planning Conservation Action Result
Not assessed Not assessed Not assessed not assessed
For more information about IBA monitoring please click here

IBA Protection

Protected Area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)
Miankaleh Peninsula, Gorgan Bay and Lapoo-Zaghmarz Ab-bandan Ramsar Site, Wetland of International Importance 100,000 protected area overlaps with site 97,200
Miankaleh Wildlife Refuge 63,317 protected area contained by site 68,800
Miankaleh UNESCO-MAB Biosphere Reserve 68,800 protected area contained by site 68,800


IUCN Habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Wetlands (inland) -
Shrubland -
Sea -
Coastline -
Grassland -
For further information about the habitat classification please click here.

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
nature conservation and research -
rangeland/pastureland -
For further information about the land use classification please click here.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay. Downloaded from on 17/05/2022.