Kudremukh National Park

Country/territory: India

IBA criteria met: A1, A2, A3 (2004)
For more information about IBA criteria, please click here

Area: 56,328 ha

Bombay Natural History Society
IBA conservation status
Year of assessment (most recent) State (condition) Pressure (threat) Response (action)
2003 not assessed low not assessed
For more information about IBA monitoring, please click here

Site description (2004 baseline)
Kudremukh National Park is located in the central Western Ghats and comprises highly complex vegetation mosaic of Tropical Wet Evergreen, Tropical Semi-Evergreen forest, Montane Wet Temperate Forest (Shola) and Montane Grassy Slopes richly nourished by several hill streams and torrents (Krishnamurthy et al. 2000). This Park is the largest protected area in the central part of the long chain of the Western Ghats. There are coffee and tea estates on the north and east, while the Ghats descend from an average of 1,500 m above msl to sea level on the west. To the northwest, an evergreen forest corridor connects the Park to the Someshwara Wildlife Sanctuary. A central ridge runs through the Park from north to south, with the highest point at Kudremukh Peak (1,892 m). Shola forest and grasslands dominate the Park above 1,400 m; lowland evergreen forest is present at lower elevations on both slopes of the hills. The Netravati, Tunga and Bhadra rivers originate in the Park.

Key biodiversity

AVIFAUNA: Over 170 bird species have been recorded by an environment impact assessment report of the Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore (Anon. 2001). Hussain et al. (1999) also gave a checklist of the birds of Kudremukh. However, the area has not been intensively studied for avifauna. Even then, of the 16 species listed in the Western Ghats Endemic Bird Area, 14 are present in Kudremukh National Park. Only two species are not found in Kudremukh, the Nilgiri Pipit Anthus nilghiriensis and Nilgiri Laughingthrush Garrulax cachinnans. The former species is generally not found so for north in the Western Ghats, while the later species is confined to the Nilgiries. Similarly, this IBA is crucial to the conservation of biome species. Fifteen species have been identified by BirdLife International (undated) to occur in Biome-10 (Indian Peninsula Tropical Moist Forest). Except for two species (House Swallow Hirundo tahitica and Loten’s Sunbird Nectarinia lotenia) all the rest are found in this IBA, again confirming the high value of this site for bird conservation. Probably, these two species would also be found at this site if detailed studies are conducted.

OTHER KEY FAUNA: The Park is very rich in wildlife, 42 species of mammals, 52 species of reptiles, 35 species of amphibians and 149 species of butterflies have been reported from here till now (Anon. 2001).

Three species of primate recorded are Common Langur Semnopithecus entellus, the endemic and highly endangered Lion-tailed Macaque, Macaca silenus and the more common Bonnet Macaque Macaca radiata. Recently, Groves (2001) has upgraded different subspecies of Semnopithecus to full species status. According to this classification, possibly Blackfooted Gray Langur S. hypoleucos occurs here. This species is perhaps the most endangered primate in India.

Among the larger carnivores are the Tiger Panthera tigris, Leopard P.pardus, Wild dog Cuon alpinus, and Sloth Bear Melursus ursinus. Large herbivores include Asian Elephant Elephas maximus, Barking Deer Muntiacus muntjak, Chital Axis axis, Sambar Cervus unicolor, Gaur Bos frontalis and Wild Boar Sus scrofa. Mouse deer Moschiola meminna is also present, but difficult to see due to its secretive nature. Porcupine Hystrix indica and Indian hare Lepus nigricollis are present. Reptiles include the Western Ghats Gliding Lizard Draco dussumieri, King Cobra Ophiophagus hannah and Bamboo Pit Viper Trimeresurus gramineus.

Scientists in the Department of Post-graduate Studies and Research in Environmental Science, Kuvempu University, Karnataka have discovered a new species of frog, endemic to the Western Ghats, in the forests of the Kudremukh National Park. This species of Nyctibatrachus (night frog) has been named N. hussaini after the well known Indian naturalist, S. A. Hussain (Krishnamurthy et al. 2000).

Key contributor: Thejaswi Shivanand.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Important Bird Area factsheet: Kudremukh National Park. Downloaded from on 27/09/2023.