HI13
Kona Forests


IBA Criteria

Year of most recent IBA criteria assessment: 2009

Populations of IBA trigger species
Species Current IUCN Red List Category Season Year(s) of estimate Population estimate IBA Criteria Triggered
Hawaiian Goose Branta sandvicensis NT breeding 2007 97 individuals A1, A2, A4i
Hawaiian Hawk Buteo solitarius NT breeding 1999 - A2
Hawaii Elepaio Chasiempis sandwichensis VU resident 1978 62,782 individuals A1, A2
Hawaiian Crow Corvus hawaiiensis EW resident 2002 2 individuals A1, A2
Hawaii Creeper Manucerthia mana EN breeding 2007 4 individuals A1, A2
Hawaii Akepa Loxops coccineus EN breeding 2007 6 individuals A1, A2
Hawaii Amakihi Chlorodrepanis virens LC resident 1978 348,879 individuals A2
Iiwi Drepanis coccinea VU resident 1978 52,008 individuals A1, A2
Apapane Himatione sanguinea LC resident 1978 225,338 individuals A2

Note: This table presents the IBA criteria triggered and the species that triggered then at the time of assessment, the current IUCN Red List category may vary from that which was in place at that time.

For more information about the IBA assessment process and criteria please click here


IBA Monitoring

Most recent IBA monitoring assessment
Year of assessment Threat score (pressure) Condition score (state) Action score (response)
2012 not assessed not assessed medium
Was the whole site covered? No State assessed by unset
Accuracy of information good

IBA Protection

Protected Area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)
Pu‘u Wa‘awa‘a Forest Bird Sanctuary 1,523 protected area contained by site 0
Pu‘u Wa‘awa‘a 1 Sanctuary 21 protected area contained by site 0
Manuka Natural Area Reserve 10,401 protected area contained by site 10,456
Kona Forest National Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge 0 is identical to site 65,266
Kipahoehoe Natural Area Reserve 2,303 protected area contained by site 2,315
Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park 146,023 protected area is adjacent to site 0
Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge 15,347 protected area contained by site 15,347

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
nature conservation and research -
agriculture -
forestry -
For further information about the land use classification please click here.

Land ownership
Lands comprising the Kona Forests Important Bird Area are owned by several different government agencies and private groups. The State of Hawai`i owns the largest proportion of the IBA overall (59%). Land parcels within the IBA include the Kona Forest National Wildlife Refuge (3%), Pu`u Wa`a Wa`a State Forest Bird Sanctuary (2%), Manuka and Kipahoehoe State Natural Area Reserves (19%), Pu`u Wa`a Wa`a, South Kona, Honualoa, and Waiaha Springs State Forest Reserves (36%), unencumbered State lands (2%), The Nature Conservancy's Kona Hema Preserve (5%), and numerous large and small private parcels (33%). Private lands are owned by Kamehameha Schools, Yee Hop Ranch, E. Stack. T. Atwood, S. Rolles Trust, One Keahole, and several other smaller landowners.


Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Kona Forests. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/11/2022.