Kemphole Reserve Forest

Country/territory: India

IBA criteria met: A2, A3 (2004)
For more information about IBA criteria, please click here

Area: 3,200 ha

Bombay Natural History Society
IBA conservation status
Year of assessment (most recent) State (condition) Pressure (threat) Response (action)
2003 not assessed medium not assessed
For more information about IBA monitoring, please click here

Site description (2004 baseline)
This rich forest is a part of a corridor of evergreen forests that link the Kudremukh National Park in the north with the Pushpagiri Wildlife Sanctuary in the south. The river Kemphole, a tributary of the Netravati, flows through this forest, which is situated on the Shiradi Ghat. Large coffee estates and arecanut farms surround the forest. An important National Highway (NH 48) connecting Bangalore and the port city of Mangalore, passes right through the Kemphole Reserve Forest and its adjoining reserve forests for over 45 km. Heavy vehicular traffic, especially large lorries, are a frequent threat to wildlife in this IBA. The main component of the vegetation is Tropical Semi-evergreen Forests, with a smaller proportion of Tropical Wet Evergreen Forests on the lower slopes.

Key biodiversity

AVIFAUNA: The bird life has not been studied in detail, but according to T. Shivanand (pers. comm. 2001) around 73 species of birds are present. Stattersfield et al. (1998) have identified 16 restricted range or endemic species in the Western Ghats Endemic Bird Area of which 8 species are found here. Five are considered as Near Threatened, while the remaining three (Blue-winged Parakeet Psittacula columboides, Indian Rufous Babbler Turdoides subrufus and Small Sunbird Nectarinia minima) are very common species listed in the Least Concern category of BirdLife International (2001). The Western Ghats region lies in Biome-10 (Indian Peninsula Tropical Moist Forest). In the briefing book prepared by BirdLife International (undated), 15 species have been listed in this biome. T. Shivanand (pers. comm. 2003) has seen nine species in this IBA. This site is selected as an IBA mainly based on the restricted range species (A2), and also Biome (A3) criteria.

OTHER KEY FAUNA: Three species of primate have been recorded. These are Common Langur Semnopithecus entellus dussumieri, the endemic and highly endangered Lion-tailed Macaque Macaca silenus, and Bonnet Macaque Macaca radiata. Recently, Groves (2001) has designated seven new species of Common Langur.

Accordingly Semnopithecus dussumieri would be present at this site. Among the larger carnivores are Leopard Panthera pardus and Sloth Bear Melursus ursinus. Large herbivores include the Asian Elephant Elephas maximus, Indian Muntjak or Barking Deer Muntiacus muntjak, Sambar Cervus unicolor, and Wild Boar Sus scrofa. Mouse Deer Moschiola meminna is also reported from these forests, which serve as an important forest corridor in elephant migration.

Reptiles include the Western Ghats Gliding Lizard Draco dussumieri and King Cobra Ophiophagus hannah.

Key contributors: Thejaswi Shivanand and Ameen Ahmed.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Important Bird Area factsheet: Kemphole Reserve Forest. Downloaded from on 26/09/2023.