Entoto Natural Park and escarpment

Country/territory: Ethiopia

IBA criteria met: A3 (1996)
For more information about IBA criteria, please click here

Area: 2,300 ha

Ethiopian Wildlife and Natural History Society

Site description (2001 baseline)
Entoto Natural Park lies on the south-eastern slopes of Mt Entoto, between the northern limit of the city of Addis Ababa (at c.2,600 m), and the track along the mountain ridge (at over 3,100 m). This track forms the border between Addis Ababa and Oromiya Regions, and divides two large watersheds, that of the Abbay (Blue Nile) to the north and the Awash to the south. The mountain is formed from a tilted block of bedrock that has left very steep, soil-less slopes and cliffs on the northern side, and much longer, shallower slopes on the south-eastern side. The natural vegetation is Afro-montane forest and, where drainage is impeded, woodland with open meadows. The forest would have been dominated by Juniperus procera with groves of Olea europaea cuspidata, scattered Hagenia abyssinica, Hypericum revolutum, H. quartinianum, Podocarpus falcatus and Acacia abyssinica, with A. negrii in some of the more disturbed valleys. Erica arborea appears at altitudes above 3,000 m. Shrubby areas include species with fleshy fruits like Rosa abyssinica and Carissa edulis, which attract fruit-eating birds. The number of herbs, both in the undergrowth of the forest and in the meadows, is very large and includes a number of endemics, particularly clovers. The whole Entoto mountain range (and many of those around it) has been covered with Eucalyptus plantations. Farmers on Entoto cultivate barley and raise cattle and sheep. Despite the close proximity to the city, their system of farming has been little affected by modern inputs. Thus the habitats in the park are diverse: forest, bushland, cultivated fields, grassy meadows, rocky slopes and cliffs, streams and marshes.

Key biodiversity
See Box and Table 3 for key species. So far, 115 species have been recorded from Entoto Natural Park and escarpment (although over 200 are known or likely to occur). Two of these, Dendropicos abyssinicus and Parophasma galinieri, are Ethiopian endemics. Vanellus melanocephalus, Macronyx flavicollis and Serinus nigriceps may occur occasionally in the montane grasslands, as they are known from similar habitat nearby. Also, as the natural vegetation is restored, it is likely that more species, such as Poicephalus flavifrons, which is known from nearby Menagesha State Forest (site ET031), will move into the park. The park is an excellent place for watching vultures (with five species present), as well as eagles, buzzards and hawks, larks and ravens. Of particular interest are Gypaetus barbatus (a notable population exists in the Entoto and Gorfu hills), Buteo oreophilus, Bubo capensis (historical records only), Aquila wahlbergi and Accipiter rufiventris. There is a substantial Gyps rueppellii roost. Many Palearctic and intra-African migrant species use the park.

Non-bird biodiversity: None known to BirdLife International.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Important Bird Area factsheet: Entoto Natural Park and escarpment. Downloaded from on 01/03/2024.