Bolkar Mountains This is an IBA in danger! 

Country/territory: Turkey

IBA Criteria met: A1, A3, B2, B3 (2016)
For more information about IBA criteria please click here

Area: 399,366 ha

Doga Dernegi
Most recent IBA monitoring assessment
Year of assessment Threat score (pressure) Condition score (state) Action score (response)
2016 very high very unfavourable low
For more information about IBA monitoring please click here

Site summary

It is a large mountain range located between the Eastern Mediterranean Region and the Central Anatolian Plateau. The area includes the widest high mountain fields of the Mediterranean region. The southem slopes of the mountain contain different Mediterranean flora species. The northern slopes have a Central Anatolian terrestrial climate. The extensive alpine zone located in the middle of the mountain range stays covered with snow until the end of July and includes a number of glacier lakes. One of these lakes (Kara Lake) is home to the Rana holtzi, which lives only in this region in the world and is under the threat of extinction.

Kadıncık Valley is located in the southern slopes of the Bolkar Mountains Key Biodiversity Area and hosts outstanding diversity of freshwater and terrestrial biodiversity. The site is one of the principle areas where the Brown Fish Owl species occur. It is estimated 6-8 individuals of this rare species occur in the area, along with many other threatened species such as the Egyptian Vulture. The valley hosts exceptionally high tree diversity where Mediterranean species co-occur with deciduous tree enclaves of Boreal origin. Bolkar Dağları is also important for alpine biome birds and raptors. Some of the breeding birds in the area are Bearded Vulture (Gypaetos barbatus), Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus), Black Kite (Milvus migrans), and Caspian Snowcock (Tetraogallus caspius). Other key species at the site are Wild Goat (Capra aegagrus), Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx), Wooly Dormouse (Dryomys laniger) and three different bats.

The flora of the Bolkar Dağları is exceptionally rich. The total recorded vascular plant flora numbers 1685 taxa - one-seventh of the overall Turkish flora - and of these no fewer than 323 taxa are Turkish endemics. As such, this mountain block perhaps has a richer diversity of plant species than any other in Turkey. Of the species that have been classified according to floristic element, the majority fail within the Mediterranean element (59%), but both Irano-Turanian (31%) and Euro-Siberian (10%) are also well represented.

The main threats are dam constructions, other interventions in the water regime, mining and illegal wood cutting. The site is listed as one of IBAs in Danger in Turkey in 2015 and 2016.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Bolkar Mountains. Downloaded from on 29/01/2023.