Ango or Anko Hills

Country/territory: India

IBA criteria met: A1, A2 (2004)
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Area: 40,000 ha

Bombay Natural History Society
IBA conservation status
Year of assessment (most recent) Threat (pressure) Condition (state) Action (response)
2003 low not assessed not assessed
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Site description (baseline)
The Ango or Anko Hills lie on the Indo-Myanmar border, in the Ukhrul district, northeast of Manipur. Owing to its remoteness, the area is largely undisturbed. The local community is also inclined to give it some protection. The forests consist of Moist Subtropical and Tropical Evergreen types. The flora and fauna are poorly known, however, the Green Peafowl Pavo muticus and Rufousnecked Hornbill Aceros nipalensis, two threatened species, are reported from this site (A. U. Choudhury pers. comm. 2003).

Key biodiversity

AVIFAUNA: The bird life of the Anko range is not very well known. This site lies in the Eastern Himalayas Endemic Bird Area (EBA), identified by Stattersfield et al. (1998) and BirdLife International (undated). This EBA is one of the bird rich areas of India, with 21 restricted range species, and a total of 114 bird species found in Biome-8 (Sino-Himalayan Subtropical Forest) and Biome-7 (Indo-Chinese Tropical Moist Forest). Ango Hills is one of the two IBAs in India where the Green or Burmese Peafowl is found, hence it is considered extremely important for conservation. Historically, the Green Peafowl was distributed widely from northeast India to southern China, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam and Cambodia (BirdLife International 2001). It persists in all these countries except Malaysia and Bangladesh, but it has certainly declined and now only occurs in fragmented, greatly reduced populations. The current world population of this peafowl in the wild is estimated at 5,000 to 10,000 individuals, and declining (McGowan and Garson 1995). In India, it was formerly distributed on the southern banks of the Brahmaputra river, from Nagaon to Cachar district, but now it is restricted to east Manipur (Choudhury 2000). Therefore, protection of this IBA is an urgent need. BirdLife International (2001) has listed only four sites in Manipur for Mrs. Hume’s Pheasant Syrmaticus humei. However, Choudhury (2002) has identified 11 more sites for this State Bird of Manipur. Four species of hornbills are found: the globally threatened Rufous-necked Hornbill Aceros nipalensis, Near Threatened Great Pied Hornbill Buceros bicornis and Brown Hornbill Anorrhinus tickelli, and much commoner Oriental Pied Hornbill Anthracoceros albirostris. The Wreathed Hornbill Aceros undulatus is also likely to occur (A. U. Choudhury pers. comm. 2003).

OTHER KEY FAUNA: Among the mammals, the Sumatran Rhinoceros Dicerorhinus sumatraensis is noteworthy (Choudhury 1997). Villagers of Konkan, which is about 88 km by road from Ukhrul town, encountered stray individuals as recently as the early 1990s (Aleng pers. comm. to Choudhury 1997). In the 1970s, a rhino was shot by the Tangkhul Naga tribe (known as the Somra tribe in Myanmar) of Khamsong village, northeast of Ukhrul town.

If it is proved that this highly endangered mammal still exists in the area, the site would need special protection. Choudhury (1997) has suggested that about 40,000 ha of the Ango Range of Manipur (and about 50,000 ha in the Saramati-Fakim area of Nagaland) should be declared protected areas to save the rhinos and their habitat.The Sumatran Rhinoceros is perhaps the most endangered large mammal in the world, with an estimated population of only 300 animals (Foose and Strien 1998).

Seven species of primates are found in the area: the Assamese Macaque Macaca assamensis, Rhesus Macaque M. mulatta, Stump-tailed macaque M. arctoides, Pig-tailed macaque M. nemestrina, Capped Langur Trachypithecus pileata, Hoolock Gibbon Hylobates hoolock and Slow Loris Nycticebus coucang.

Among the carnivores, Tiger Panthera tigris, Leopard Panthera pardus, Clouded Leopard Neofelis nebulosa, Golden Cat Catopuma temminckii Dhole or Wild Dog Cuon alpinus and Asiatic Black Bear Ursus thibetanus are found. Wild Boar Sus scrofa, Sambar Cervus unicolor, Indian Muntjak or Barking Deer Muntiacus muntjak, Gaur Bos frontalis, Goral Nemorhaedus goral and Serow Nemorhaedus sumatraensis are the major ungulates found in the area.

Key contributors: R. K. Ranjan Singh, Anwaruddin Choudhury, M. Firoz Ahmed, Salam Rajesh and T. Muivah.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Important Bird Area factsheet: Ango or Anko Hills. Downloaded from on 07/06/2023.