Andringitra National Park is located 35 km south of Ambalavao. This mountainous, high-altitude massif comprises a series of rocky domes and a chain of outcrops with narrow crests which form numerous pinnacles, divided by deep, narrow valleys and gorges. The climate is hot and humid in the eastern low-altitude part, and temperate and humid in the higher western part. A highly developed hydrographic system drains the massif: the main rivers are the Zomandao, Menarahaka, Iatara and Rienana. Park vegetation includes low-altitude, dense, humid evergreen forest (with Sloanea as an emergent), mid-altitude, dense, humid evergreen forest (characterized by trees of Podocarpus, Weinmannia, screw-pines Pandanus, tree-ferns Cyathea, as well as Compositae in the higher part, and Vaccinium in the lower parts), and dense sclerophyllous montane forest characterized by trees of Podocarpus, Araliaceae, Compositae, Erythroxylaceae and Verbenaceae. On the bare, open rock of the summits, the vegetation includes species of Philippia, Aloe, Pachypodium, Liliaceae and Kalanchoe, with a high level of local endemicity. There are some areas of savanna around the two highest summits, Pic Boby and Pic Bory, which are rich in terrestrial orchids, including Cynorkis, Habenaria and Disa.
See Box and Tables 2 and 3 for key species. One hundred and twelve species are known from the site, of which 65 are endemic to Madagascar. The forest species present are largely those of middle and higher altitudes; several lowland species are missing. A population of rock thrushes Monticola in the summit zone is possibly referable to M. bensoni. Ploceus sakalava, a species characteristic of the West Malagasy biome, occurs on the western slopes of the massif.