TR076
Bolkar Mountains This is an IBA in danger! 


Country/territory: Turkey

IBA Criteria met: A3, B2, B3 (2004)
For more information about IBA criteria please click here

Area: 399,366 ha

Protection status:

Doga Dernegi
Most recent IBA monitoring assessment
Year of assessment Threat score (pressure) Condition score (state) Action score (response)
2016 very high very unfavourable low
For more information about IBA monitoring please click here


Site description

The high mountain fields (alpine zone) located in the middle of the mountain range stay covered with snow until the end of July and include glacier lakes. One of these lakes (Kara Lake) is home to the Rana holtzi, which lives only in this region in the world and is under the threat of extinction. The KBA is very rich in terms of wildlife. (Eken et al. 2006).

Bolkar Dağları (Mountains) comprises the huge massif, largely formed of hard Permo-Carboniferous limestones, that forms the insurmountable barrier between Central Anatolia and the Mediterranean coastline, and represents the second highest mountain group in the Taurus mountains after the Aladağlar.
The area is largely unprotected. The greatest threats come from the ongoing 'traditional' processes of depasturing stock - parts of the mountain are very heavily grazed - and collection of fuelwood. The construction of dams in some of the Southern gorges has caused localised destruction to these remarkable areas.
The Bolkars are mainly formed of Permo-Carboniferous limestones, many hundreds of metres thick, deposited in the ancient Sea of Tethys (Mesogea). At the end of the Mesozoic era, the Toros Mountains started tor ise and fold (along with the Alps), as the Tethys began to narrow, such that by the beginning of the Tertiary period the Toros chain had largely become dry land. Later (at the end of the Pliocene period) the Bolkar range moved southwards (together with the Aladağlar and Geyik ranges) as the Arabian Plate moved northwards into south-eastern Anatolia. The mountains rose yet further from the end of the Pliocene to the beginning of the Ouaternary. At certain periods during this history, periods of increased rainfall and river formation accelerated the formation of the karstic scenery seen today: the deep valleys and canyons (some 1500 m. deep), so characteristic of the Southern flanks of the mountain, formed underthese conditions. The landscape was further shaped during the last Ice Age, when the more elevated parts of the Bolkar range remained under a permanent snow (during this time the altitude of the snowline averaged 2780 m.). A series of cirques, assoriated with the main peaks, are perhaps the most obvious result of glaciation. A number of tarns have formed within these hollows, the principal two being Karagöl ('Black Lake', at 2590 m.) and Çiniligöl ('Tile Lake', 2660 m.).
The climate of the mountain range is highly varied. In general, the Southern slopes are subject to a montane Mediterranean climate, whilst the northerly slopes have a Continental climate more typical of Central Anatolia. In addition, someofthe deepest valleys on the Southern flanks have a humid microclimate, and are important both for populations of Euro-Siberian species, together with a number of relict species (most notably Flueggea anatolica).
(Byfield et al., 2010)

It is a large mountain range located between the Eastern Mediterranean Region and the Central Anatolian Plateau. Its location in the transition zone of two regions and its diversifıed geomorphological structure has made the Bolkar Mountains one of Turkey's most unique areas in terms of natural life and rare species (Eken et al. 2006).

The Bolkar Dağları (Mountains) comprises a monumental range of mountains that run for 70 km. in a south-west to north-easterly direction, and forms the apparently insurmountable barrier between the steppes of Central Anatolia and the Mediterranean coastline. The range rises gradually from west to east, reaching its maximum elevation in the north-east. Here, relatively large areas to the south-east of Maden village lie above 3000 m., and at 3524 m., Medetsiz Tepesi represent the second highest peak in the Toros mountains after the Aladağlar range to the North-east.

 (Byfield et al., 2010)

Key biodiversity

KBA is the one of the most peerless wildlife area of our country. There are special species of  many living beings in the area. There are approximately 300 Turkish endemic plant species in KBA. It is known that almost ten of them's ranges are bounded only by Bolkar Dağları.
It is also quite important site with regard to birds, especially raptors.
Some of the breeding raptors in the area are Lanner Falcon (Falco biarmicus), Bearded vulture (Gypaetos barbatus), Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus), Black kite (Milvus migrans), and Caspian snowcock (Tetraogallus caspius). Bolkar Dağları is also one of the most important mammal zone of our country. Wild goat (Capra aegagrus), Eurasian Lynx (Lynx lynx), Wooly dormouse (Dryomys laniger) and three different bat species make the area get KBA status. Moreover,  one of the most important species of Bolkar Dağları is Taurus Frog (Rana holtzi), which lives only in Bolkar Dağları in the world. 
This endemic living being, which lives in Kara Göl and Çinili Göl regions, is one of the most valuable specy of Bolkar Dağları.
KBA is also important for it's butterflies and damselflies. Two Turkish endemic butterflies live in Bolkar Dağları (Eken et al., 2006).

GLOBAL CONSERVATION CONCERN SPP. [16 TAXA] Alkanna pinardii [END, V], Asplenium reuteri [END,E], Astragalus aydosensis [END, V], Colchicum balansae [END, V], Consolida cruciata [END, I], Cyclamen cilicium [END, V], C. pseudibericum [END, V], Echinops mersinensis [END, V], Flueggea anatolica [END n/l], Galanthus nivalis ssp. cilicicus [END, V], Helichrysum peshmenianum [END, E], Iris junonia [END, V], Myosotis ramosissima ssp. uncata [END, I], Ophrys cilicica [END, V], Polygala inexpectata [END, V], Silene pompeiopolitana [END, E]

EUROPEAN CONSERVATION CONCERN SPP. [152 TAXA]
Achillea kotschyi ssp. canescens [END, R], A monocephala [END, K], A spinulifolia [END, R], Aethionema capitatum [END, R], A. cordatum [R], A. demirizii [END, R], A. glaucescens [END, K], A. huber-morathii [END, R], A. schistosum [END, R], Ajugapostii [END, R], Alchemilla paracompactilis [END, K], Alkanna aucherana [END, R], Allium alpinarii [END, R], A. decidum [END, R], A. gayi [END, R], Alyssum argyrophyllum [END, R], A. cilicicum [END, R], A. giosnanum [END, R], Anthemis fimbriata [END, R], A. oxylepis [END, R], A. pauciloba var. sieheana [END, R], Anthyllis vulneraria ssp. variegata [END, R], Arabis androsaceae [END, R], A aubretioides [END, R], Aristolochia cilicica [END, R], Asperula cilicica [END, R], A. stricta ssp. grandiflora [END, R], Astragalus chrysochlorus [END, R], A. goeznensis [END, R], A. plumosus var. akardaghicus [END, R], A. plumosus var. plumosus [END, R], A. stenosemioides [END, R], A. suberosus ssp. mersinensis [END, K], Brachypodium kotschyi [END, R], Campanula psilostachya [END, R], C. trachyphylla [END, R], Centaurea amanicola [END, R], C. antiochia var. praealta [END, R], C. calcitrapa ssp. cilicica [END, R], C. chrysantha [END, R], C. kotschyi var. kotschyi [END, R], C. sieheana [END, K], C. solstitialis ssp. carneola [END, R], Chamaecytisus drepanolobus [END, R], Cicer floribundum [END, R], Cicerbita brevirostris [END, R], Cirsium cilicicum [END, R], Corydalis solida ssp. tauricola [END, R], Cousinia ermenekensis [END, R], Crocus cancellatus ssp. cancellatus [END, R], C. reticulatus ssp. hittiticus [END, R], C. sieheanus [END, R], Dianthus elegans var. actinopetalus [END, R], Draba acaulis [END, R], D. elegans [END, R], Ebenus cappadocica [END, R], E. longipes [END, R], Echinophora carvifolia [END, R], Erodium cedrorum ssp. salmoneum [END, R], E. leucanthum [END, R], E. micropetalum [END, R], Euphorbia rhytidosperma [END, R], E. schottiana [END, K], Ferulago pachyloba [END, R], Festuca cataonica [END, R], Fritillaria aurea [END, R], Galium membranaceum [END, R], Gentiana boissieri [END, R], Gentianella holosteoides [END, K], Geranium Lasiopus [END, K], Gnaphalium leucopilinum [END, R], Gypsophita curvifolia [END, R], Helianthemum strickeri [END, K], Heptaptera cilicica [END, R], Heracleum pastinaca [END, R], Hesperis campicarpa [END, R], H. matronalis ssp. cilicica [END, R], Hyacinthella glabrescens [END, R], H. hispida [END, R], Hypericum crenulatum [END, R], H. kotschyanum [END, R], H. rupestre [END, R], H. vacciniifolium [END, R], Iris sprengeri [END, R], Isatis callifera [END, R], I. frigida [END, R], Johrenia alpına [END, f | R], Kitaibelia balansae [END, R], Lamium eriocephalum ssp. eriocephalum [END, R], L. garganicum ssp. nepetifolium [END, R], Lathyrus cilicicus [END, R], Linaria genistifolia ssp. polyclada [END, R], Linum anisocalyx [END, R], L. ciliatum [END, R], L. empetrifolium [END, R], Michauxia thyrsoidea [END, R], Micromeria cilicica [END, R], Minuartia anatolica var. scleranthoides [END, R], M. umbellulifera ssp. umbellulifera var. kurdica [END, R], Minuartia umbellu¬lifera ssp. umbellulifera var. umbellulifera [END, R], Omphalodes luciliae ssp. cilicica [END, R], Onosma angustissimum [END, R], Onriganum boissieri [END, K], O. micranthum [END, R], Ornithogalum alpigenum [END, R], Pastinaca zozimioides [END, K], Phryna ortegioides [END, R], Poa speluncarum [END, R], Potentilla pulvinaris ssp. argentea [END, R], P. pulvinaris ssp. pulvinaris [END, R], P. tauricola [END, R], Prenanthes glareosa [END, R], Reseda balansae [END, R], Rhamnus hirtellus [END, R], Salvia aucheri var. aucheri [END, R], S. Cilicica [END, R], S. modesta [END, R], S. quezelii [END, R], Scandix balansae [END, R], Scorzonera lacera [END, R], Scrophularia libanotica ssp. libanotica var. oligantha [END, R], Scutellaria rubicunda ssp. pannosula [END, R], Senecio farfarifolius [END, R], S. tauricolus [END, R], Serratula lasiocephala [END, R], Sideritis serratifolia [END, R], Silene caryophylloides ssp. stentoria [END, R], S. squamigera [END, R], Stachys annua ssp. cilicica [END, R], Tanacetum argenteum ssp. flabellifolium [END, R], Thlaspi cilicicum [END, R], T. elegans [END, R], Thymelaea cilicica [END, R], Thymus sipyleus ssp. sipyleus var. sipyleus [END, R], Tordylium elegans [END, R], Trigonella cilicica [END,R], T. rhytidocarpa [END, R],T.rigida[END,R],Tripleurospermum kotschyi [END, R], Valeriana bolkarica [END, R], Verbascum chlorostegium [END, R], V. cili¬cicum [END, R], V. cilicium [END, R], V. linearilobum [END, R], V. lyratifolium [END, R], V. meincheanum [END, R], V. tauri [END, R], Veronica bombycina ssp. bolkardaghensis [END, R], V. kotschyana [END, R], V. macrostachya ssp. sorgerae [END, R], V. surculosa [END, R], Viola crassifolia [END, R]

OTHER NATIONALLY RARE SPP. [15 TAXA]
Allium calyptratum [R], A. Curtum [R], A. roseum [V], A. trifoliatum [R], Anthericum liliago [R], Arum dioscoridis var. liepoldtii [R], Colchicum stevenii [R], Eminium rauwotffii var. kotschyi [E], Eranthis hye¬malis [V], Erica sicula ssp. libanotica [V], Fritillaria acmopetala ssp. acmopetala [R], Hyacinthus orientalis [V], Ophrys fleischmanni [R], Ruscus aculeatus var. angustifolius [V], Scilla cilicica [R] (Byfield et al., 2010).


Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2018) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Bolkar Mountains. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/12/2018.