ZA091
Outeniqua mountains


IBA Criteria

Year of most recent IBA criteria assessment: 1998

Populations of IBA trigger species
Species Current IUCN Red List Category Season Year(s) of estimate Population estimate IBA Criteria Triggered
Cape Francolin Pternistis capensis LC resident 1998 present A3
Ground Woodpecker Geocolaptes olivaceus NT resident - present A1
Knysna Woodpecker Campethera notata NT resident 1998 present A1
Cape Rockjumper Chaetops frenatus NT resident 1998 present A1, A2, A3
Victorin's Warbler Cryptillas victorini LC resident 1998 present A2, A3
Cape Bulbul Pycnonotus capensis LC resident 1998 present A3
Cape Sugarbird Promerops cafer LC resident 1998 present A2, A3
Orange-breasted Sunbird Anthobaphes violacea LC resident 1998 present A2, A3
Protea Canary Crithagra leucoptera NT resident 1998 present A1, A2, A3
Cape Siskin Crithagra totta LC resident 1998 present A1, A2, A3

Note: This table presents the IBA criteria triggered and the species that triggered then at the time of assessment, the current IUCN Red List category may vary from that which was in place at that time.

For more information about the IBA assessment process and criteria please click here


IBA Monitoring

Most recent IBA monitoring assessment
Year of assessment Threat score (pressure) Condition score (state) Action score (response)
2012 high not assessed medium
Was the whole site covered? Yes State assessed by unset
Accuracy of information medium

Threats to the site (pressure)
Threat Level 1 Threat Level 2 Timing Scope Severity Result
Agricultural expansion and intensification annual & perennial non-timber crops - small-holder farming happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Agricultural expansion and intensification annual & perennial non-timber crops - small-holder farming happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Agricultural expansion and intensification livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - agro-industry grazing, ranching or farmin happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Agricultural expansion and intensification wood and pulp plantations (includes afforestation) - agro-industry plantations happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Agricultural expansion and intensification wood and pulp plantations (includes afforestation) - small-holder plantations happening now some of area/population (10-49%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Biological resource use gathering terrestrial plants - unintentional effects (species being assessed is not the target) happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Biological resource use hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - unintentional effects (species is not the target) happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Biological resource use logging & wood harvesting - unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Climate change and severe weather drought happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Climate change and severe weather habitat shifting and alteration likely in long term (beyond 4 years) majority/most of area/population (50-90%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Energy production and mining mining and quarrying happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Energy production and mining renewable energy likely in short term (within 4 years) small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Geological events avalanches/landslides happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Human intrusions and disturbance recreational activities happening now some of area/population (10-49%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Human intrusions and disturbance work and other activities happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Invasive and other problematic species and genes introduced genetic material happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Invasive and other problematic species and genes invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - named species happening now some of area/population (10-49%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Natural system modifications dams & water management/use - large dams happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Natural system modifications fire & fire suppression - increase in fire frequency/intensity happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Natural system modifications other ecosystem modifications happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) slow but significant deterioration high
Pollution agricultural & forestry effluents - nutrient loads happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Pollution air-borne pollutants - smog happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Pollution domestic & urban waste water - type unknown/unrecorded happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Pollution excess energy - light pollution happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) no or imperceptible deterioration low
Pollution industrial & military effluents - type unknown/unrecorded happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Residential and commercial development commercial and industrial development happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Residential and commercial development housing and urban areas happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Residential and commercial development tourism and recreation areas happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Transportation and service corridors roads and railroads likely in long term (beyond 4 years) small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Transportation and service corridors utility & service lines likely in long term (beyond 4 years) small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low

Condition of habitat (state)
Habitat Habitat Detail Reference Area (ha) Actual Area (ha) % of habitat remaining % of carrying capacity (overall) Result
Forest Montane forest - mixed 0 0 moderate (70-90%) moderate (70-90%) unfavourable
Shrubland Shrubland - Cape (fynbos) 0 0 moderate (70-90%) moderate (70-90%) unfavourable

Conservation actions taken at site (response)
Conservation Designation Management Planning Conservation Action Result
Most of site (50-90%) covered (including the most critical parts for important bird species) A comprehensive and appropriate management plan exists that aims to maintain or improve the populations of qualifying bird species Substantive conservation measures are being implemented but these are not comprehensive and are limited by resources and capacity medium
For more information about IBA monitoring please click here

IBA Protection

Protected Area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)
Ysternek Nature Reserve Forest Nature Reserve 1,196 protected area contained by site 0
Van Kervel Nature Reserve Nature Reserve 11 protected area is adjacent to site 0
Outeniqua Mountain Catchment Area State Forest 0 protected area contained by site 158,515
Lelievlei Nature Reserve Forest Nature Reserve 1,085 protected area contained by site 0
Knysna National Lake Area Protected Environment 1,205,279 protected area overlaps with site 0
Jubilee Creek Nature Reserve Forest Nature Reserve 1,225 protected area contained by site 0
Gouritz Cluster Biosphere Reserve UNESCO-MAB Biosphere Reserve 3,189,557 protected area overlaps with site 0
Garden Route National Park National Park 126,386 protected area overlaps with site 0
Doringrivier Wilderness Area Forest Wilderness Area 9,520 protected area overlaps with site 0
Church Millwood Nature Reserve Forest Nature Reserve 6,542 protected area overlaps with site 0
Cape Floral Region Protected Areas World Heritage Site (natural or mixed) 1,094,742 protected area overlaps with site 0
Attakwaskloof Nature Reserve Forest Nature Reserve 10,308 protected area overlaps with site 0

Local conservation groups

The local conservation groups below are working to support conservation at this IBA.

Name Year formed
WESSA 0
For more information on BirdLife's work with Local conservation groups please click here.

Habitats

IUCN Habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Forest Montane forest - mixed -
Shrubland Shrubland - Cape (fynbos) -
For further information about the habitat classification please click here.

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
tourism/recreation -
water management -
forestry -
nature conservation and research -
For further information about the land use classification please click here.


Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Outeniqua mountains. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/08/2022.