Sandwich Harbour

IBA Justification

Year of most recent IBA criteria assessment: 1998

Populations of IBA trigger species
Species Current IUCN Red List Category Season Year(s) of estimate Population at site IBA criteria triggered
Greater Flamingo Phoenicopterus roseus LC non-breeding - 2,480-11,900 individuals A4i
Lesser Flamingo Phoeniconaias minor NT non-breeding - common A1
Cape Cormorant Phalacrocorax capensis EN non-breeding - 4,230-25,300 individuals A1, A4i
African Oystercatcher Haematopus moquini LC non-breeding - 20-90 individuals A1, A4i
Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta LC non-breeding - 120-940 individuals A4i
White-fronted Plover Charadrius marginatus LC non-breeding - 440-2,540 individuals A4i
Chestnut-banded Plover Charadrius pallidus LC non-breeding - 170-5,590 individuals A4i
Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres LC winter - 402-2,260 individuals A4i
Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea NT winter - 3,580-43,680 individuals A4i
Sanderling Calidris alba LC winter - 1,630-14,160 individuals A4i
Little Stint Calidris minuta LC winter - 3,590-30,480 individuals A4i
Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus LC non-breeding - 280-3,200 individuals A4i
Damara Tern Sternula balaenarum LC non-breeding - 50-300 individuals A1, A4i
Caspian Tern Hydroprogne caspia LC non-breeding - 30-168 individuals A4i
Common Tern Sterna hirundo LC winter - 4,610-42,000 individuals A4i
Sandwich Tern Thalasseus sandvicensis LC winter - 200-3,660 individuals A4i
Greater Crested Tern Thalasseus bergii LC non-breeding - 80-820 individuals A4i
A4iii Species group - waterbirds n/a non-breeding - 50,000-99,999 individuals A4iii

Note: The current IUCN Red List category may differ from the category that was valid at the time of IBA criteria assessment.

For more information about the IBA criteria, please click here

IBA Conservation

IBA conservation status - summary
Year of assessment (most recent) Threat (pressure) Condition (state) Action (response)
2001 high not assessed not assessed
Was the whole site assessed? yes Condition (state) assessed by unset
Accuracy of information good

Threats to the site (pressure)
Threat level 1 Threat level 2 Timing Scope Severity Result
Human intrusions and disturbance recreational activities happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) slow but significant deterioration high

Conservation actions taken at the site (response)
Protected-area designation Management planning Other conservation action Result
Not assessed Not assessed Not assessed not assessed
For more information about IBA conservation status, please click here

IBA Protection

Protected area (PA) PA designation PA area (ha) Relationship of PA with IBA Overlap of PA with IBA (ha)
Sandwich Harbour Ramsar Site, Wetland of International Importance 16,500 protected area overlaps with site 8,500
Namib-Naukluft National Park 5,076,600 protected area overlaps with site 8,500
Namib Sand Sea World Heritage Site (natural or mixed) 3,077,700 protected area overlaps with site 7,892


IUCN Habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Marine Coastal/Supratidal -
Marine Intertidal -
Grassland -
For further information about the IUCN habitat classification, please click here.

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
nature conservation and research -
tourism/recreation -
For further information about the land-use classification, please click here.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Important Bird Area factsheet: Sandwich Harbour. Downloaded from on 04/06/2023.