HI01
Northwestern Hawaiian Islands


IBA Criteria

Year of most recent IBA criteria assessment: 2009

Populations of IBA trigger species
Species Current IUCN Red List Category Season Year(s) of estimate Population estimate IBA Criteria Triggered
Laysan Duck Anas laysanensis CR resident 2005 631 mature individuals A1, A2, A4i
Red-tailed Tropicbird Phaethon rubricauda LC breeding 1984 9,200 breeding pairs A4ii
Tristram's Storm-petrel Hydrobates tristrami NT breeding 1984 5,500 breeding pairs A1, A4ii
Black-footed Albatross Phoebastria nigripes NT breeding 2007 55,900 breeding pairs A1, A4ii
Laysan Albatross Phoebastria immutabilis NT breeding 2007 617,000 breeding pairs A1, A4ii
Bonin Petrel Pterodroma hypoleuca LC breeding 2007 315,000 breeding pairs A4ii
Wedge-tailed Shearwater Ardenna pacifica LC breeding 1984 225,000 breeding pairs A4ii
Christmas Shearwater Puffinus nativitatis LC breeding 1984 2,700 breeding pairs A4ii
Bulwer's Petrel Bulweria bulwerii LC breeding 1984 90,000 breeding pairs A4ii
Great Frigatebird Fregata minor LC breeding 1984 9,900 breeding pairs A4ii
Red-footed Booby Sula sula LC breeding 1984 7,900 breeding pairs A4ii
Masked Booby Sula dactylatra LC breeding 1984 1,700 breeding pairs A4ii
Pacific Golden Plover Pluvialis fulva LC non-breeding 2000 1,992 individuals A4i
Bristle-thighed Curlew Numenius tahitiensis VU non-breeding 2004 800 individuals A1, A4i
Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres LC non-breeding 2000 3,478 individuals A4i
Brown Noddy Anous stolidus LC breeding 1984 75,000 breeding pairs A4i
Black Noddy Anous minutus LC breeding 1984 13,000 breeding pairs A4i
Procelsterna cerulea NR breeding 1984 3,500 breeding pairs A4i
Common White Tern Gygis alba LC breeding 1984 11,000 breeding pairs A4i
Sooty Tern Onychoprion fuscatus LC breeding 1984 1,500,000 breeding pairs A4i
Grey-backed Tern Onychoprion lunatus LC breeding 1984 43,000 breeding pairs A4i
Millerbird Acrocephalus familiaris CR resident 2007 481-1,147 males A1, A2
Laysan Finch Telespiza cantans VU resident 1968-1990 5,000-20,000 mature individuals A1, A2
Nihoa Finch Telespiza ultima CR resident 2007 2,060-3,550 mature individuals A1, A2
A4iii Species group - waterbirds n/a breeding 1984-2005 1,570,000 breeding pairs A4iii
A4iii Species group - seabirds n/a breeding 1984-2007 1,338,500 breeding pairs A4iii

Note: This table presents the IBA criteria triggered and the species that triggered then at the time of assessment, the current IUCN Red List category may vary from that which was in place at that time.

For more information about the IBA assessment process and criteria please click here


IBA Monitoring

Most recent IBA monitoring assessment
Year of assessment Threat score (pressure) Condition score (state) Action score (response)
2009 medium not assessed high
Was the whole site covered? Yes State assessed by unset
Accuracy of information -

Threats to the site (pressure)
Threat Level 1 Threat Level 2 Timing Scope Severity Result
Biological resource use fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - unintentional effects: large scale happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Biological resource use fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - unintentional effects: subsistence/small scale past (and unlikely to return) and no longer limiting whole area/population (>90%) slow but significant deterioration low
Climate change and severe weather storms and floods likely in long term (beyond 4 years) some of area/population (10-49%) moderate to rapid deterioration medium
Invasive and other problematic species and genes invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - named species happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Pollution industrial & military effluents - type unknown/unrecorded happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium

Conservation actions taken at site (response)
Conservation Designation Management Planning Conservation Action Result
Whole area of site (>90%) covered by appropriate conservation designation A comprehensive and appropriate management plan exists that aims to maintain or improve the populations of qualifying bird species Substantive conservation measures are being implemented but these are not comprehensive and are limited by resources and capacity high
For more information about IBA monitoring please click here

IBA Protection

Protection status:

Protected Area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)
Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument 36,202,393 protected area contained by site 34,136,200

Land ownership
All of the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands are owned by the U.S. government except Kure, which is owned by the State of Hawaii.


Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 12/11/2019.