UK077
The Wash


IBA Criteria

Year of most recent IBA criteria assessment: 2007

Populations of IBA trigger species
Species Current IUCN Red List Category Season Year(s) of estimate Population estimate IBA Criteria Triggered
Brent Goose Branta bernicla LC passage 2001-2006 4,669 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
Brent Goose Branta bernicla LC winter 2001-2006 20,273 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
Pink-footed Goose Anser brachyrhynchus LC passage 2001-2006 2,895 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
Pink-footed Goose Anser brachyrhynchus LC winter 2001-2006 31,901 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
Common Shelduck Tadorna tadorna LC passage 2001-2006 3,923 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
Common Shelduck Tadorna tadorna LC winter 2001-2006 8,150 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
Northern Pintail Anas acuta LC winter 2001-2006 867 individuals B1i, C3
Haematopus ostralegus NR passage 2001-2006 15,514 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
Haematopus ostralegus NR winter 2001-2006 14,781 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta LC passage 2001-2006 473 individuals B2, C6
Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta LC winter 2001-2006 155 individuals B2, C6
Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta LC breeding 2006 78 breeding pairs B3, C6
Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola LC passage 2001-2006 8,741 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola LC winter 2001-2006 7,189 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
Eurasian Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria LC passage 2001-2006 16,620 individuals B1i, C2, C6
Eurasian Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria LC winter 2001-2006 21,579 individuals A4i, B1i, C2, C6
Common Ringed Plover Charadrius hiaticula LC passage 2001-2006 885 individuals B1i, C3
Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata NT passage 2001-2006 9,309 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata NT winter 2001-2006 3,603 individuals A4i, B1i, B2, C3
Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica NT passage 2001-2006 10,770 individuals A4i, B1i, C2, C6
Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica NT winter 2001-2006 15,603 individuals A4i, B1i, B2, C2, C6
Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa NT winter 2001-2006 4,798 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa NT passage 2001-2006 7,880 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres LC passage 2001-2006 1,114 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
Red Knot Calidris canutus NT passage 2001-2006 39,714 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
Red Knot Calidris canutus NT winter 2001-2006 84,086 individuals A4i, B1i, B2, C3
Sanderling Calidris alba LC passage 2001-2006 3,285 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
Dunlin Calidris alpina LC passage 2001-2006 33,260 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
Dunlin Calidris alpina LC winter 2001-2006 31,944 individuals A4i, B1i, B2, C3
Common Redshank Tringa totanus LC passage 2001-2006 7,043 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
Common Redshank Tringa totanus LC winter 2001-2006 3,225 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
Common Redshank Tringa totanus LC breeding 1994 580 breeding pairs B1i, B2, C3
Mediterranean Gull Larus melanocephalus LC breeding 1999 1 breeding pairs C6
Common Tern Sterna hirundo LC breeding 2001 68 breeding pairs C6
Western Marsh-harrier Circus aeruginosus LC breeding 2004 19 breeding pairs C6
Montagu's Harrier Circus pygargus LC breeding 2004 2 breeding pairs C6
A4iii Species group - waterbirds n/a passage 2001-2006 199,862 individuals A4iii, C4
A4iii Species group - waterbirds n/a winter 2001-2006 312,262 individuals A4iii, C4
A4iii Species group - waterbirds n/a passage 2001-2006 83,376 individuals A4iii, C4

Note: This table presents the IBA criteria triggered and the species that triggered then at the time of assessment, the current IUCN Red List category may vary from that which was in place at that time.

For more information about the IBA assessment process and criteria please click here


IBA Monitoring

Most recent IBA monitoring assessment
Year of assessment Threat score (pressure) Condition score (state) Action score (response)
2007 high very unfavourable low
Was the whole site covered? Yes State assessed by Population
Accuracy of information good

Threats to the site (pressure)
Threat Level 1 Threat Level 2 Timing Scope Severity Result
Agricultural expansion and intensification marine and freshwater aquaculture - industrial aquaculture happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Biological resource use hunting & collecting terrestrial animals - persecution/control likely in short term (within 4 years) small area/few individuals (<10%) moderate to rapid deterioration low
Climate change and severe weather habitat shifting and alteration likely in long term (beyond 4 years) majority/most of area/population (50-90%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Energy production and mining renewable energy likely in short term (within 4 years) small area/few individuals (<10%) moderate to rapid deterioration low
Human intrusions and disturbance recreational activities likely in short term (within 4 years) some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Human intrusions and disturbance war, civil unrest and military exercises happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Natural system modifications dams & water management/use - large dams likely in short term (within 4 years) majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration high

Condition of key/trigger populations (state)
Scientific Common TargetPop ActualPop Units Remaining Result
Cygnus cygnus Whooper Swan 70 23 individuals 33 not assessed
Cygnus columbianus Tundra Swan 45 15 individuals 34 not assessed
Branta bernicla Brent Goose 23028 20273 individuals 89 near favourable
Anser brachyrhynchus Pink-footed Goose 24913 31901 individuals 100 favourable
Tadorna tadorna Common Shelduck 12792 8150 individuals 64 unfavourable
Anas acuta Northern Pintail 255 867 individuals 100 favourable
Haematopus ostralegus Eurasian Oystercatcher 15069 15514 individuals 100 favourable
Haematopus ostralegus Eurasian Oystercatcher 20399 14781 individuals 73 near favourable
Recurvirostra avosetta Pied Avocet 370 473 individuals 100 favourable
Recurvirostra avosetta Pied Avocet 168 155 individuals 93 favourable
Recurvirostra avosetta Pied Avocet 45 78 breeding pairs 100 favourable
Pluvialis squatarola Grey Plover 9488 7189 individuals 76 near favourable
Pluvialis squatarola Grey Plover 4651 8741 individuals 100 favourable
Pluvialis apricaria Eurasian Golden Plover 4869 16620 individuals 100 favourable
Pluvialis apricaria Eurasian Golden Plover 16670 21579 individuals 100 favourable
Charadrius hiaticula Common Ringed Plover 1079 885 individuals 83 near favourable
Numenius arquata Eurasian Curlew 2912 3225 individuals 100 favourable
Numenius arquata Eurasian Curlew 9017 9309 individuals 100 favourable
Numenius arquata Eurasian Curlew 3550 3603 individuals 100 favourable
Limosa lapponica Bar-tailed Godwit 10732 10770 individuals 100 favourable
Limosa lapponica Bar-tailed Godwit 13337 15603 individuals 100 favourable
Limosa limosa Black-tailed Godwit 3374 7880 individuals 100 favourable
Arenaria interpres Ruddy Turnstone 797 1114 individuals 100 favourable
Arenaria interpres Ruddy Turnstone 678 438 individuals 65 unfavourable
Calidris canutus Red Knot 73803 84086 individuals 100 favourable
Calidris canutus Red Knot 55542 39714 individuals 72 near favourable
Calidris alba Sanderling 1310 3285 individuals 100 favourable
Calidris alpina Dunlin 29558 33260 individuals 100 favourable
Calidris alpina Dunlin 34994 31944 individuals 92 favourable
Tringa totanus Common Redshank 6254 7043 individuals 100 favourable
Sterna hirundo Common Tern 230 68 breeding pairs 30 very unfavourable
Circus aeruginosus Western Marsh-harrier 23 19 breeding pairs 83 near favourable
Circus pygargus Montagu's Harrier 2 2 breeding pairs 100 favourable
Species group - waterbirds A4iii 191535 199862 individuals 100 favourable
Species group - waterbirds A4iii 271811 312262 individuals 100 favourable
Species group - waterbirds A4iii 165007 83370 individuals 51 unfavourable

Conservation actions taken at site (response)
Conservation Designation Management Planning Conservation Action Result
Most of site (50-90%) covered (including the most critical parts for important bird species) A management plan exists but it is out of date or not comprehensive Some limited conservation initiatives are in place low
For more information about IBA monitoring please click here

IBA Protection

Protected Area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)
The Wash And North Norfolk Coast Site of Community Importance (Habitats Directive) 107,718 protected area overlaps with site 0
The Wash and North Norfolk Coast Marine Protected Area (OSPAR) 0 protected area overlaps with site 0
The Wash Ramsar Site, Wetland of International Importance 62,212 protected area contained by site 62,212
The Wash Marine Protected Area (OSPAR) 0 protected area contained by site 0
The Wash National Nature Reserve 8,779 protected area contained by site 8,582
The Wash Site of Special Scientific Interest (UK) 62,056 protected area contained by site 62,212
The Wash Special Protection Area (Birds Directive) 62,044 protected area contained by site 62,212
Snettisham Nature Reserve 1,950 protected area contained by site 0
North Norfolk Coast Marine Protected Area (OSPAR) 0 protected area is adjacent to site 0
North Norfolk Coast Ramsar Site, Wetland of International Importance 7,887 protected area is adjacent to site 0
North Norfolk Coast Site of Special Scientific Interest (UK) 7,861 protected area is adjacent to site 0
North Norfolk Coast Special Protection Area (Birds Directive) 7,862 protected area is adjacent to site 0
Norfolk Coast Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty 44,583 protected area overlaps with site 5,726
Hunstanton Cliffs Site of Special Scientific Interest (UK) 5 protected area contained by site 0
Gibraltar Point Special Protection Area (Birds Directive) 422 protected area is adjacent to site 0
Gibraltar Point Ramsar Site, Wetland of International Importance 414 protected area overlaps with site 0
Gibraltar Point Marine Protected Area (OSPAR) 0 protected area overlaps with site 0
Gibraltar Point National Nature Reserve 438 protected area overlaps with site 0
Gibraltar Point Site of Special Scientific Interest (UK) 598 protected area overlaps with site 0
Freiston Shore Nature Reserve 885 protected area overlaps with site 0
Frampton Marsh Nature Reserve 561 protected area overlaps with site 0

Habitats

IUCN Habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Wetlands (inland) Tidal rivers and enclosed tidal waters, Mud flats and sand flats, Salt marshes, Sand dunes and beaches, Standing brackish and salt water, Water fringe vegetation -
Coastline Sea cliffs and rocky shores -
For further information about the habitat classification please click here.

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
fisheries/aquaculture -
military -
nature conservation and research -
urban/industrial/transport -
For further information about the land use classification please click here.


Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Important Bird Areas factsheet: The Wash. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/08/2022.