Kona Forests

IBA Justification

The site was identified as important in 2009 because it was regularly supporting significant populations of the species listed below, meeting ('triggering') IBA criteria.

Populations meeting IBA criteria ('trigger species'):
Species Current IUCN Red List Category Season Year(s) Population estimate at site IBA criteria met
Hawaiian Goose Branta sandvicensis NT breeding 2007 97 individuals A1, A2, A4i
Hawaiian Hawk Buteo solitarius NT breeding 1999 - A2
Hawaii Elepaio Chasiempis sandwichensis NT resident 1978 62,782 individuals A1, A2
Hawaiian Crow Corvus hawaiiensis EW resident 2002 2 individuals A1, A2
Hawaii Creeper Manucerthia mana EN breeding 2007 4 individuals A1, A2
Hawaii Akepa Loxops coccineus EN breeding 2007 6 individuals A1, A2
Hawaii Amakihi Chlorodrepanis virens LC resident 1978 348,879 individuals A2
Iiwi Drepanis coccinea VU resident 1978 52,008 individuals A1, A2
Apapane Himatione sanguinea LC resident 1978 225,338 individuals A2

The current IUCN Red List category may differ from that which was valid at the time of IBA criteria assessment (2009).

IBA Conservation

IBA conservation assessment
Year of assessment (most recent) State (condition) Pressure (threat) Response (action)
2012 not assessed not assessed medium
Was the whole site assessed? State assessed by Accuracy of information
no unset good

Response (conservation actions taken for the trigger species and/or their habitats)
Protected-area designation Management planning Other conservation action Result
Most of site (50-90%) covered (including the most critical parts for important bird species) A comprehensive and appropriate management plan exists that aims to maintain or improve the populations of qualifying bird species Some limited conservation initiatives are in place medium
For more information about IBA conservation status, please click here

IBA Protection

Protected area (PA) PA designation PA area (ha) Relationship of PA with IBA Overlap of PA with IBA (ha)
Pu‘u Wa‘awa‘a Forest Bird Sanctuary 1,523 protected area contained by site 0
Pu‘u Wa‘awa‘a 1 Sanctuary 21 protected area contained by site 0
Manuka Natural Area Reserve 10,401 protected area contained by site 10,456
Kona Forest National Wildlife Refuge National Wildlife Refuge 0 is identical to site 65,266
Kipahoehoe Natural Area Reserve 2,303 protected area contained by site 2,315
Hawai'i Volcanoes National Park 146,023 protected area is adjacent to site 0
Hakalau Forest National Wildlife Refuge 15,347 protected area contained by site 15,347

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
nature conservation and research -
agriculture -
forestry -

Land ownership
Lands comprising the Kona Forests Important Bird Area are owned by several different government agencies and private groups. The State of Hawai`i owns the largest proportion of the IBA overall (59%). Land parcels within the IBA include the Kona Forest National Wildlife Refuge (3%), Pu`u Wa`a Wa`a State Forest Bird Sanctuary (2%), Manuka and Kipahoehoe State Natural Area Reserves (19%), Pu`u Wa`a Wa`a, South Kona, Honualoa, and Waiaha Springs State Forest Reserves (36%), unencumbered State lands (2%), The Nature Conservancy's Kona Hema Preserve (5%), and numerous large and small private parcels (33%). Private lands are owned by Kamehameha Schools, Yee Hop Ranch, E. Stack. T. Atwood, S. Rolles Trust, One Keahole, and several other smaller landowners.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Important Bird Area factsheet: Kona Forests. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/site/factsheet/kona-forests-iba-usa on 23/02/2024.