Guguan Island

Site description (2007 baseline):

Site location and context
The proposed Guguan Island IBA is uninhabited and protected by CNMI law as a Wildlife Conservation Area. The volcanic island is free of large introduced mammals. The coast is bordered by steep basaltic rock with gables of high ridges which contain deep, rain-eroded gorges.

Key biodiversity
The entire island of Guguan is proposed as an IBA under A4i and A4iii criteria. The island qualifies as an IBA under A4i criteria for Grey-backed Terns and Sooty Terns. The island qualifies under A4iii criteria for its total seabird population. Guguan is also home to Micronesian Megapodes, White-throated Ground-Doves, Micronesian Starlings, Collared Kingfishers, and Micronesian Honeyeaters (DFW, 2007b).

Non-bird biodiversity: Additional rare and endangered species on the island include Mariana Fruit Bat.

Pressure/threats to key biodiversity
Rats are present on the island. Guguan is an active volcano and last erupted in the 1880s (

Protected areas
The island is currently protected under CNMI law as part of the Northern Islands Conservation Area (CNMI DFW, 2007). Guguan had previously been nominated as one of the “Islands for Science” reserves.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Important Bird Area factsheet: Guguan Island. Downloaded from on 23/09/2023.