Teniz-Karakamys Lakes

Country/territory: Kazakhstan

IBA criteria met: A1, A3, A4i, A4iii (2007)
For more information about IBA criteria, please click here

Area: 12,528 ha

Association for the Conservation of Biodiversity in Kazakhstan
IBA conservation status
Year of assessment (most recent) State (condition) Pressure (threat) Response (action)
2007 unfavourable high not assessed
For more information about IBA monitoring, please click here

Site description (2007 baseline)
The Lakes lie on the left bank of the Ubagan river valley 30 km from the point where it joins the Tobol river. Administratively they are in the Mendykary district of Kostanai Region, 35 km to the north–east of the district centre Borovskoe and 105 km to the north-east of the regional centre Kostanai. Teniz (or Tenghiz) and Karakamys (Sarykamysh) are freshwater lakes with an unstable hydrological regime and varing area - up to 129.3 km2 in years of extensive flooding. At this time, the lakes extend up to 22.8 km in length and 10.1 km in width. The average depth is 1.2 m, the maximum 2.8 m. The lakes are subject to periodic natural fluctuations with periods of drying out and reflooding - between 1931-1933 the lakes were reported to have been reduced to negligible puddles. When water levels are high, the low-lying parts of the flood valley become waterlogged and transform into marshes and flooded meadows. The lakes are surrounded by profuse dense reed growth together with Scirpus sp. and Typha sp. Teniz lake is located in a distinct, elongated hollow with fairly tall, steep slopes on the eastern side and smooth slopes on the western banks. The western and southern shoreline is varied, and the entire lake is surrounded by reedbeds from 30 to 100 m in width. The open water of the central part of the lake is free from vegetation and, when windy subject to a considerable swell. On the west side Teniz Lake is flanked by a variety of meadows giving way, close to the shore, to boggy sedge-covered (Carex omskiana) areas. Where there are alkali soil patches the low dense reedbeds are often accompanied by Saussurea salsa. The majority of the drier land is taken up by Feather-grass-Fescue steppe (Stipa capillata, Festuca valesiaca Stipa zalesskii, Seseli ledebourii,) with scattered patches of Spiraea hypericifolia. The marshy banks of Karakamys Lake are covered with a mixture of Carex acuta, C. disticha, C. acutiformis and Scolochloeae festucacea. On the south-western parts of the shore the steppe flora also support halophytic species including Artemisia nitrosa. Along the northern shore there are occasional stands of Salix viminalis and S. cinerea, and 1 km further inland, scattered small birch groves. The land to the south of the lakes support a variety of flood-meadows, marshes and seasonal lakes during the times of spring flooding and in wet years. Much of the land on the eastern side of the lake has been reclaimed for crop production and this extends close to the shore.

Key biodiversity
The Teniz-Karakamys lakes support 57 nesting species of waterbird. A preliminary field appraisal at the site in June 2000, recorded a total of 12-15,000 breeding waterfowl and shorebirds, with Karakamys being especially important. In years of high water, the available breeding habitat can double in extent. In June 2004, at the southern, shallow end of Lake Teniz, 27,000 waterbirds were counted. Ducks constitute 36.6% of the breeding waterbird community with very high numbers of Aythya ferina, Anas querquedula, Anas clypeata, Anas platyrhynchos and Anas strepera. At Teniz Lake Anser anser constitutes 14.4% of the nesting birds. Also common, though less numerous, is Cygnus olor. Gulls and terns constiture 22.5%: on Teniz Lake there is a large mixed colony of Larus ridibundus, L. minutus, Chlidonias leucoptera and Ch. niger. The most numerous breeding wader is Vanellus vanellus; other species are: Tringa totanus, T. stagnatilis, Limosa limosa, Numenius arquata, Himantopus himantopus and, possibly, Recurvirostra avosetta. 60 waterbird species occur on passage, mostly ducks and swans. As the lakes are situated to the west of the main goose flyway that follows the Ubagan-Ishym lakes only occasional, small flocks reach Teniz-Karakamys. By contrast waders Calidris minuta, Calidris alpina and Philomachus pugnax always occur in large numbers. Spring passage is brief but autumn migration extends from the end of August until the end of October. The lakes support 14 species included in the Red Data Book of Kazakhstan. It holds the most northerly colonies of Pelicans in Kazakhstan, estblished in 1995. In 1998 there were 130-160 pairs of Pelcanus onocrotalus and 40 pairs of Pelecanus crispus. Other important breeding species are Grus grus and Larus ichthyaetus. Breeding by Oxyura leucocephala, Cygnus cygnus and Aythya nyroca is suspected. Grus virgo, Tetrax tetrax, Haliaeetus albicilla and Aquila heliaca breed in the surrounding area. On passage Branta ruficollis and Aquila clanga are regular, and Pandion haliaetus occasional.

Non-bird biodiversity: The bulk of the local ichthyofauna is represented by 3 species: Carassius carassius, Carassius auratus and Phoxinus percnurus. The commonest amphibians are: Pelobates fuscus, Rana arvalis and Rana temporaria; the reptilian fauna is represented by Lacerta agilis, Natrix natrix, Vipera berus and Lacerta vivipara. The mammal fauna consists of 39 species. In years of high water levels there is an obvious increase in the numbers of Arvicola terrestris and Ondatra zibethica. Other common rodents are: Apodemus sylvaticus, Micromys minutus, Microtus oeconomus, Apodemus agrarius, Clethrionomys rutilus, Sicista betulinaand, Spermophillus major, Sp. erythrogenus, Microtus arvalis, Lagurus lagurus, Cricetus cricetus, Phodopus sungorus, Ellobius talpinus and, in saline areas, Аllactaga major. Common insectivores are: Erinaceus europaeus, Sorex araneus, S. minutus, Crocidura suoveolens; infrequently Erinaceus auritus, and, possibly, Neomys fodiens. Ungulates are represented by Capreolus pygargus, with a small resident population, and visiting individuals of Alces alces. Lepus europaeus is ubiquitous, while Lepus timidus is restricted to wooded areas. Mustelids are represented by Mustela nivalis, Mustela erminea, Mustela eversmanni, Meles meles, Mustela sibirica and Martes martes, and larger predators consist of Canis lupus, Vulpes vulpes, Vulpes corsac and Nyctereutes procyonoides. In the Teniz-Ubagan watershed there are a few plots of relict steppe landscape with an assortment of rich-herbage-motley-turf-grass associations consisting mostly of Stipa zalesskii, Festuca valesiaca, Phleum phleoides, Filipendula stepposa, Veronica spuria and Onobrychis sibirica.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Important Bird Area factsheet: Teniz-Karakamys Lakes. Downloaded from on 27/09/2023.