Upper Bay of Panamá

IBA Criteria

Year of most recent IBA criteria assessment: 2006

Populations of IBA trigger species
Species Current IUCN Red List Category Season Year(s) of estimate Population estimate IBA Criteria Triggered
Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola LC winter 1988-1997 3,270 individuals A4i
Semipalmated Plover Charadrius semipalmatus LC winter 1988-1997 30,000 individuals A4i
Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus LC winter 1988-1997 5,844 individuals A4i
Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla NT winter 1997 165,000 individuals A4i
Western Sandpiper Calidris mauri LC winter 1997 1,091,000 individuals A4i
Short-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus griseus LC winter 1988-1997 6,273 individuals A4i
Willet Tringa semipalmata LC winter 1988-1997 10,841 individuals A4i
A4iii Species group - waterbirds n/a winter 1988-1997 1,000,000-2,499,999 individuals A4iii

Note: This table presents the IBA criteria triggered and the species that triggered then at the time of assessment, the current IUCN Red List category may vary from that which was in place at that time.

For more information about the IBA assessment process and criteria please click here

IBA Monitoring

Most recent IBA monitoring assessment
Year of assessment Threat score (pressure) Condition score (state) Action score (response)
2013 high near favourable low
Was the whole site covered? Yes State assessed by Habitat
Accuracy of information unknown

Threats to the site (pressure)
Threat Level 1 Threat Level 2 Timing Scope Severity Result
Agricultural expansion and intensification annual & perennial non-timber crops - small-holder farming happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Climate change and severe weather habitat shifting and alteration happening now whole area/population (>90%) slow but significant deterioration high
Natural system modifications dams & water management/use - abstraction of surface water (domestic use) happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Pollution agricultural & forestry effluents - type unknown/unrecorded happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Residential and commercial development housing and urban areas happening now some of area/population (10-49%) moderate to rapid deterioration high

Condition of habitat (state)
Habitat Habitat Detail Reference Area (ha) Actual Area (ha) % of habitat remaining % of carrying capacity (overall) Result
Marine Intertidal 0 0 moderate (70-90%) good (> 90%) near favourable

Conservation actions taken at site (response)
Conservation Designation Management Planning Conservation Action Result
Whole area of site (>90%) covered by appropriate conservation designation No management planning has taken place Substantive conservation measures are being implemented but these are not comprehensive and are limited by resources and capacity low
For more information about IBA monitoring please click here

IBA Protection

Protection status:

Protected Area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)
Bahía de Panamá Humedal de Importancia Internacional 134,570 protected area contains site 0
Bahía de Panamá Ramsar Site, Wetland of International Importance 48,919 is identical to site 48,919

Local conservation groups

The local conservation groups below are working to support conservation at this IBA.

Name Year formed
Amigos del Ambiente 2005
Junta Local de Oquendo 2005
For more information on BirdLife's work with Local conservation groups please click here.


IUCN Habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Artificial/Terrestrial -
Coastline Intertidal mud, sand & salt flats -
Forest Mangrove -
Marine Intertidal -
Marine Coastal/Supratidal -
For further information about the habitat classification please click here.

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
agriculture -
fisheries/aquaculture -
rangeland/pastureland -
nature conservation and research -
tourism/recreation -
urban/industrial/transport -
For further information about the land use classification please click here.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Upper Bay of Panamá. Downloaded from on 26/10/2020.