The Nawalparasai forests lie between Bardghat to Sunwal at the base of the Siwalik Hills of the Nawalparasai district in south-central Nepal. This area is largely used for agriculture and almost all of the southern part is intensively farmed. Natural and semi-natural forests remain towards the north, along the northern section of the East West highway. These forests are managed by local communities, as community forest.
The forest is mainly Sal Shorea robusta with Saj Terminalia tomentosa as the co-dominant species. In degraded areas, there are Sissoo Dalbergia sissoo plantations. Agriculture forms a significant part of the landscape.
Nawalparasai has been identified as an IBA because of its important colony of White-rumped Vultures.
A total of 71 nests of White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis was counted here during the 2002-2003 breeding season; of these only 23 were successful in raising young (Baral et al. 2003).
Non-bird biodiversity: Golden Jackal Canis aureus, Indian Hare Lepus nigricollis, Bengal Fox Vulpes bengalensis have been seen. Other possible wildlife include Leopard Panthera pardus.
Conservation responses/actions for key biodiversity
The forests where vultures nest are primarily managed by local communities under agreement with the Department of Forest. Communities managing the forests are not aware of the significance of the nesting vultures. Use of diclofenac in the area is prevalent and hence contamination of food is the primary threat to these vultures. Other threats include cutting of trees, disturbance, especially during the nesting period, and food shortage.
There is a clear need to work with communities and also at the policy level to ban the use of diclofenac.