Rock of Gibraltar

Year of compilation: 2000

Site description
The Rock of Gibraltar is dominated by a dense cover of maquis and garrigue, including many important fruit-bearing shrubs that support large passerine populations on passage and during the winter.

Key biodiversity
Gibraltar is a well-known migratory bottleneck site for birds of prey, with an estimated 250,000 raptors crossing the Strait in a season. If the winds are right then most of these pass over Gibraltar, and numbers may in fact be higher. It is also a stop-over site for passerines and near-passerines, with a rapid turnover of birds on passage during both northward and southward migration.

Pressure/threats to key biodiversity
A number of military sites are designated as conservation areas. 197 ha of the Rock of Gibraltar are proposed as a SPA under the EC Birds Directive, and as a SAC under the EC Habitats Directive.

Protected areas
National Low International None45 ha of IBA covered by Nature Reserve (Upper Rock, 45 ha).

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Rock of Gibraltar. Downloaded from on 20/10/2021.