The Penaga-Kuala Muda area consists of a stretch coastal tidal mudflats and mangroves located north of mainland Pulau Pinang. Rice cultivation, coconut groves, fruit orchards dominate the landscape further inland. Other agriculture-related activities include medium-scale cattle rearing and aquaculture. Fishing villages dot the coastal stretch.
61 species indentified. Important are for waterbirds especially shorebirds and egrets. The rural-like environment also supports several Biome-restricted species.Near-threatened species Far Eastern Curlew Numenius madagascariensis, Asian Dowitcher (Yeap et al., 2003)Over 500 Forest Wagtail Dendronanthus indicus and over 3,000 Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava roost at this site.1% world population of Chinese Pond-Heron
Non-bird biodiversity: (I) Globally threatened mammals (IUCN, 2002): NEAR THREATENED: Long-tailed Macaque Macaca fascicularisSilver leaf monkey(II) Globally threatened reptiles (IUCN, 2002): No information.(III) Globally threatened plants (IUCN, 2002): No information.
Pressure/threats to key biodiversity
The Penaga-Kuala Muda agricultural belt is slowly undergoing changes as development moves northwards. Several issues pertinent to the area include:Poaching of birdsLand conversion to aquaculture and housingEncroachment into the mangroves and buffer areas for illegal housing.No buffer zone between the mangorve and legally developed area.
The area has no protection as most of it is currently privately and State owned.
BirdLife International (2019) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Teluk Air Tawar-Kuala Muda coast. Downloaded from
http://www.birdlife.org on 21/11/2019.