(I) Physical CharacteristicsEndau-Rompin National Park is located in the northern parts of the Johor State in Peninsular Malaysia and is the southern most National Park in the peninsula (MNS, 2001; Wong, 2000; Kiew et al., 1985, 1987a). The terrain is mostly hilly and several parts have been logged in the 1970s. The highest point in the Park is Gunung Besar (1,036 m asl). Other prominent hills include Gunung Bekok (953 m asl), Gunung Beremban (839 m asl), Bukit Peta (552 m asl) and Ulu Kemapan (854 m asl). The geological history of the park dates back at least 248 million years to the Permian-Carboniferous age. Rock types include low grade metamorphics, volcanics, granite and sedimentary sequence (the Tebak formation). The entire park is covered with with lithosols and shallow latosols with the exception of a few isolated areas. Several important rivers and tributaries run its course through the park namely, Sungai Endau, Sungai Jasin and Sungai Selai. It is an important source of water for Johor State. (II) Climatic ConditionsThe national park experiences heavy rains during north-east monsoon from November-January. The mean annual temperature is 27oC and relative humidity is about 85% (NERCP, 2000).
A total of 253 species of birds have recorded in Endau-Rompin State Park (Chin 2000; Davison 1987), despite an impoverished bird fauna in its unique palm and open heath forest (Davison 1987). It is the most important IBA site in the southern peninsula for biome-restricted assemblages particularly the Sundaic lowland forest. One hundred and twenty-one species are dependent upon the habitat, of which 6 are globally threatened (1 Endangered, 5 Vulnerable) and 60 Near Threatened. Other Near Threatened species recorded included the Lesser Fish-eagle Ichthyophaga humilis and Great Hornbill Buceros bicornis. The state park forms a contiguous forest block in the north with the Rompin-Endau Forest Reserve.
Non-bird biodiversity: The park supports significant populations of large mammals and a small breeding population of Sumatran Rhinoceros Dicerorhinus sumatrensis (Flynn and Mohd. Tajuddin Abdullah, 1983; Burhanuddin Hj. Mohd. Nor et al., 1995; Hifni et al., 1993). Sixty-two species of mammals and at least 21 species of bats have been recorded (Davison and Kiew, 1987; Davison and Zubaid Akbar, 1987). The park herpetofauna includes at least one caecilian, 26 species of frogs, 14 snakes, 9 lizards and 3 turtles (Kiew, 1987). Forty-three species of freshwater fish can be found in the park's streams and rivers (Mohd. Zakaria-Ismail, 1987).Endau-Rompin is located in an area also known as the 'Riouw Pocket' which is a meeting point of the West Bornean, Sumatran and Malayan flora. It is characterized by a high degree of endemism. A significant number of plant species that are locally endemic or restricted to the southeastern region of the peninsula are found in the park. At least eight species are endemic to the park including Calamus endauensis and Loxocarpus tunkui. In addition, ten species found within the park have a limited distribution in Johor State and eight occur only in the southern and eastern parts of the peninsula (MNS, 2001).(I) Globally threatened mammals (IUCN, 2002): CRITICAL: Sumatran Rhinoceros Dicerorhinus sumatrensis; ENDANGERED: Tiger Panthera tigris, Asian Elephant Elephas maximus, Malayan Tapir Tapirus indicus; VULNERABLE: Pig-tailed Macaque Macaca nemestrina, Common Porcupine Hystrix brachyura, Gaur Bos gaurus; NEAR THREATENED: Long-tailed Macaque M. nemestrina, Banded Leaf-Monkey Presbytis melalophos, White-handed Gibbon Hylobates lar, Oriental Small-clawed Otter Amblonyx cinereus, Ridley's Bat Myotis ridleyi; DATA DEFICIENT: Malayan Sun Bear Helarctos malayanus(II) Globally threatened reptiles (IUCN, 2002): ENDANGERED: Spiny Turtle Heosemys spinosa, Asian Brown Tortoise Manouria emys; VULNERABLE: Malayan Flat-shelled Turtle Notochelys platynota, Asiatic Softshell Turtle Amyda cartilaginea; NEAR THREATENED: Asian Leaf Turtle Cyclemys dentata(III) Globally threatened plants (IUCN, 2002): CRITICAL: Dipterocarpus baudii, D. concavus, D. costulatus, D. gracilis, D. kerrii, Shorea acuminata, S. blumutensis, S. singkawang, Dryobalanops aromatica, Hopea johorensis, Anisophyllea reticulata; ENDANGERED: Dipterocarpus crinitus, Shorea bentongensis, S. leprosula, S. maxwelliana, S. pauciflora, S. blumutensis; VULNERABLE: Anisophyllea reticulata, A. curtisii, Cotylelobium lanceolatum, Madhuca sessiliflora, Neobalanocarpus heimii, Mesua kochummenia, Horsfieldia perangusta; LOWER RISK/conservation dependent: Drypetes cockburnii, Schoutenia furfuracea, Phyllanthus watsonii, Koompassia malaccensis, Madhuca tubulosa, Mesua rosea, Trigonostemon rufescens, Rhopaloblaste singaporensis; NEAR THREATENED: Livistona endauensis, Horsfieldia superba, H. crassifolia
BirdLife International (2020) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Endau-Rompin. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 14/08/2020.