Parsa was set up in 1984 on the eastern side of Royal Chitwan National Park. The reserve encompasses part of the Churia hills and bhabar land. It has a subtropical monsoon climate but, due to the gravel and conglomerate soil composition, the ground is very porous and, as a result, there are many dry streams, ravines, and gullies. The reserve is dominated by Sal Shorea robusta forests throughout. Chir Pine Pinus roxburghii grows on the hills, and Sissoo Dalbergia sissoo and Khair Acacia catechu trees grow sparsely on the floodplains (Todd 2001).
Over 250 species have been reported from Parsa Wildlife Reserve (Todd 2001, Baral and Pradhan 1992). However, the reserve is very under-recorded and many more species are likely to be found. Four globally threatened and one near-threatened bird species occur , but like many other species in the reserve, their status is unknown. There are large areas of dry tropical forest that are likely to support significant populations of characteristic species of the Indo-Malayan Tropical Dry Zone biome.
Non-bird biodiversity: The reserve provides excellent habitat for other wildlife. Globally threatened species include Tiger Panthera tigris, Asian Elephant Elephas maximus, Gaur Bos frontalis, Asian Wild Dog Cuon alpinus and Nilgai Boselaphus tragocamelus.
Conservation responses/actions for key biodiversity
Conservation issues at Parsa are poorly known, but it seems to be facing fewer threats than Chitwan from local communities. Virtually no tourists visit Parsa.