NL001
Wadden Sea


IBA Criteria

Year of most recent IBA criteria assessment: 2016

Populations of IBA trigger species
Species Current IUCN Red List Category Season Year(s) of estimate Population estimate IBA Criteria Triggered
Whooper Swan Cygnus cygnus LC non-breeding 2011-2015 73-104 individuals C6
Whooper Swan Cygnus cygnus LC winter 2011-2015 68 individuals B3
Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus LC non-breeding 2011-2015 269-361 individuals B1i, C2
Tundra Swan Cygnus columbianus LC winter 2011-2015 208 individuals B2
Brent Goose Branta bernicla LC non-breeding 2011-2015 84,852-97,566 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis LC non-breeding 2011-2015 177,278-197,072 individuals A4i, B1i, C2, C6
Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis LC winter 2011-2015 57,633 individuals B3
Greylag Goose Anser anser LC non-breeding 2011-2015 29,502-32,877 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
Bean Goose Anser fabalis LC winter 2011-2015 2,553 individuals B3
Bean Goose Anser fabalis LC non-breeding 2011-2015 7,101-10,392 individuals B1i, C3
Common Eider Somateria mollissima NT breeding 2011-2015 3,207-3,236 breeding pairs B2
Common Eider Somateria mollissima NT non-breeding 2011-2015 95,324-110,904 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
Velvet Scoter Melanitta fusca VU non-breeding 2011-2015 61-163 individuals A1, C1
Red-breasted Merganser Mergus serrator LC winter 2011-2015 336 individuals B2
Common Shelduck Tadorna tadorna LC non-breeding 2011-2015 119,367-165,851 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
Common Pochard Aythya ferina VU non-breeding 2011-2015 1,280 individuals A1, C1
Greater Scaup Aythya marila LC non-breeding 2011-2015 36,440-86,439 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
Greater Scaup Aythya marila LC winter 2011-2015 7,684 individuals B2
Northern Shoveler Spatula clypeata LC non-breeding 2011-2015 2,268-3,229 individuals B1i, C3
Eurasian Wigeon Mareca penelope LC non-breeding 2011-2015 88,714-118,975 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
Eurasian Wigeon Mareca penelope LC winter 2011-2015 56,572 individuals B3
Northern Pintail Anas acuta LC non-breeding 2011-2015 21,145-30,172 individuals B1i, C3
Common Teal Anas crecca LC non-breeding 2011-2015 20,098-26,089 individuals B1i, C3
Common Loon Gavia immer LC non-breeding 2011-2015 2 individuals C6
Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia LC breeding 2011-2015 776-881 breeding pairs A4i, B1i, B3, C2, C6
Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia LC non-breeding 2011-2015 2,545-3,210 individuals A4i, B1i, C2, C6
Little Egret Egretta garzetta LC breeding 2011-2015 3-4 breeding pairs C6
Little Egret Egretta garzetta LC non-breeding 2011-2015 70-122 individuals C6
Eurasian Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus NT non-breeding 2011-2015 135,609-144,263 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
Eurasian Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus NT winter 2011-2015 130,227 individuals B2
Eurasian Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus NT breeding 2011-2015 2,068-2,771 breeding pairs B2
Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta LC breeding 2011-2015 1,265-1,430 breeding pairs A4i, B1i, C2, C6
Pied Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta LC non-breeding 2011-2015 18,670-30,438 individuals A4i, B1i, C2, C6
Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola LC non-breeding 2011-2015 56,008-60,186 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
Eurasian Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria LC non-breeding 2011-2015 41,701-53,001 individuals A4i, B1i, C2, C6
Eurasian Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria LC winter 2011-2015 17,406 individuals B3
Common Ringed Plover Charadrius hiaticula LC non-breeding 2011-2015 9,430-13,148 individuals B1i, C3
Common Ringed Plover Charadrius hiaticula LC breeding 2011-2015 41-45 breeding pairs B3
Common Ringed Plover Charadrius hiaticula LC winter 2011-2015 67 individuals B3
Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus LC non-breeding 2011-2015 21-28 individuals C6
Northern Lapwing Vanellus vanellus NT winter 2011-2015 19,825 individuals B2
Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata NT non-breeding 2011-2015 119,918-131,481 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata NT winter 2011-2015 108,557 individuals B2
Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica NT non-breeding 2011-2015 145,309-180,739 individuals A4i, B1i, C3, C6
Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa NT non-breeding 2011-2015 3,096 individuals B1i, B2, C3
Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres LC non-breeding 2011-2015 3,869-4,808 individuals B1i, C3
Red Knot Calidris canutus NT non-breeding 2011-2015 146,438-267,552 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea NT non-breeding 2011-2015 4,059-6,892 individuals B1i, C3
Sanderling Calidris alba LC non-breeding 2011-2015 18,590-26,238 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
Dunlin Calidris alpina LC non-breeding 2011-2015 343,450-373,679 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
Spotted Redshank Tringa erythropus LC non-breeding 2011-2015 2,893-4,238 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
Common Greenshank Tringa nebularia LC non-breeding 2011-2015 6,673 individuals B1i, C3
Common Redshank Tringa totanus LC non-breeding 2011-2015 31,644 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
Common Redshank Tringa totanus LC winter 2011-2015 8,162 individuals B2
Common Redshank Tringa totanus LC breeding 2011-2015 755-1,081 breeding pairs B2
Black-headed Gull Larus ridibundus LC non-breeding 2011-2015 156,585-212,781 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
Black-headed Gull Larus ridibundus LC breeding 2011-2015 31,390-37,118 breeding pairs A4i, B1i, B3, C3
Mew Gull Larus canus LC non-breeding 2011-2015 58,313-82,306 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
Mew Gull Larus canus LC breeding 2011-2015 779-905 breeding pairs B3
Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus LC breeding 2011-2015 18,191-18,545 breeding pairs A4i, B1i, B3, C3
Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus LC non-breeding 2011-2015 min 16,974 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
European Herring Gull Larus argentatus LC non-breeding 2011-2015 46,954-59,346 individuals A4i, B1i, C3
European Herring Gull Larus argentatus LC breeding 2011-2015 9,712-12,297 breeding pairs A4i, B1i, B2, C3
Great Black-backed Gull Larus marinus LC breeding 2011-2015 21-25 breeding pairs B3
Little Tern Sternula albifrons LC breeding 2011-2015 121-146 breeding pairs B1i, C6
Little Tern Sternula albifrons LC non-breeding 2011-2015 min 373 individuals B1i, C2, C6
Black Tern Chlidonias niger LC non-breeding 2011-2015 3,730-6,000 individuals C6
Common Tern Sterna hirundo LC breeding 2011-2015 2,135-2,346 breeding pairs C2, C6
Common Tern Sterna hirundo LC non-breeding 2011-2015 2,443 individuals C6
Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea LC breeding 2011-2015 820-880 breeding pairs C6
Sandwich Tern Thalasseus sandvicensis LC breeding 2011-2015 6,065-11,987 breeding pairs A4i, B1i, B3, C2, C6
Sandwich Tern Thalasseus sandvicensis LC non-breeding 2011-2015 min 5,866 individuals A4i, B1i, C2
Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus LC breeding 2011-2015 10-14 breeding pairs C6
Osprey Pandion haliaetus LC non-breeding 2011-2015 6-8 individuals C6
Western Marsh-harrier Circus aeruginosus LC breeding 2011-2015 42-48 breeding pairs C6
White-tailed Sea-eagle Haliaeetus albicilla LC non-breeding 2011-2015 4-6 individuals C6
Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus LC breeding 2011-2015 1 breeding pairs C6
Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus LC non-breeding 2011-2015 81-94 individuals C6
A4iii Species group - waterbirds n/a non-breeding 2011-2015 1,416,247-1,599,042 individuals A4iii, C4

Note: This table presents the IBA criteria triggered and the species that triggered then at the time of assessment, the current IUCN Red List category may vary from that which was in place at that time.

For more information about the IBA assessment process and criteria please click here


IBA Monitoring

Most recent IBA monitoring assessment
Year of assessment Threat score (pressure) Condition score (state) Action score (response)
2018 high not assessed medium
Was the whole site covered? No State assessed by unset
Accuracy of information medium

Threats to the site (pressure)
Threat Level 1 Threat Level 2 Timing Scope Severity Result
Agricultural expansion and intensification livestock farming and ranching (includes forest grazing) - agro-industry grazing, ranching or farmin happening now majority/most of area/population (50-90%) moderate to rapid deterioration high
Climate change and severe weather habitat shifting and alteration likely in long term (beyond 4 years) whole area/population (>90%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Energy production and mining renewable energy happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Human intrusions and disturbance recreational activities happening now some of area/population (10-49%) slow but significant deterioration medium
Invasive and other problematic species and genes problematic native species/diseases - named species happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Natural system modifications other ecosystem modifications happening now some of area/population (10-49%) very rapid to severe deterioration high
Pollution excess energy - light pollution happening now small area/few individuals (<10%) slow but significant deterioration low
Transportation and service corridors roads and railroads likely in short term (within 4 years) some of area/population (10-49%) moderate to rapid deterioration medium

Conservation actions taken at site (response)
Conservation Designation Management Planning Conservation Action Result
Whole area of site (>90%) covered by appropriate conservation designation A comprehensive and appropriate management plan exists that aims to maintain or improve the populations of qualifying bird species Some limited conservation initiatives are in place medium
For more information about IBA monitoring please click here

IBA Protection

Protection status:

Protected Area Designation Area (ha) Relationship with IBA Overlap with IBA (ha)
Waddenzee II Natural Monument 80,000 protected area overlaps with site 79,700
Waddenzee I Natural Monument 125,000 protected area overlaps with site 108,000
Waddenzee Site of Community Importance (Habitats Directive) 264,858 protected area contained by site 263,050
Waddenzee Special Protection Area (Birds Directive) 271,771 is identical to site 270,756
Waddenzee Natuurbeschermingswet 271,771 is identical to site 0
Waddensea Area UNESCO-MAB Biosphere Reserve 260,000 protected area overlaps with site 233,855
Wadden Sea Ramsar Site, Wetland of International Importance 249,998 is identical to site 233,855
The Wadden Sea World Heritage Site (natural or mixed) 1,143,403 protected area overlaps with site 252,567
Schiermonnikoog Nationaal Park 6,838 protected area overlaps with site 0
North Sea Coastal Area Ramsar Site, Wetland of International Importance 135,000 protected area is adjacent to site 0
Noordzeekustzone II - NL2008004 Site of Community Importance (Habitats Directive) 118,658 protected area is adjacent to site 0
Noordzeekustzone Marine Protected Area (OSPAR) 123,800 protected area is adjacent to site 0
Noordzeekustzone Special Protection Area (Birds Directive) 144,475 protected area is adjacent to site 0
Noordzeekustzone Site of Community Importance (Habitats Directive) 144,475 protected area is adjacent to site 0
Noordzeekustzone Natuurbeschermingswet 144,475 protected area is adjacent to site 0
Lauwersmeer Ramsar Site, Wetland of International Importance 5,800 protected area is adjacent to site 0
IJsselmeer Ramsar Site, Wetland of International Importance 108,000 protected area is adjacent to site 0
Eems-Dollard Site of Community Importance (Habitats Directive) 15,365 protected area contained by site 4,153
Duinen Vlieland Special Protection Area (Birds Directive) 1,311 protected area is adjacent to site 0
Duinen Vlieland Site of Community Importance (Habitats Directive) 1,484 protected area is adjacent to site 0
Duinen Vlieland Ramsar Site, Wetland of International Importance 1,484 protected area is adjacent to site 0
Duinen Vlieland Natuurbeschermingswet 1,484 protected area is adjacent to site 0
Duinen van Texel Nationaal Park 4,685 protected area overlaps with site 0
Duinen Terschelling Special Protection Area (Birds Directive) 3,573 protected area is adjacent to site 0
Duinen Terschelling Site of Community Importance (Habitats Directive) 4,040 protected area is adjacent to site 239
Duinen Terschelling Ramsar Site, Wetland of International Importance 4,040 protected area is adjacent to site 0
Duinen Terschelling Natuurbeschermingswet 4,040 protected area is adjacent to site 0
Duinen Schiermonnikoog Natuurbeschermingswet 833 protected area is adjacent to site 0
Duinen Schiermonnikoog Special Protection Area (Birds Directive) 833 protected area is adjacent to site 0
Duinen Schiermonnikoog Site of Community Importance (Habitats Directive) 833 protected area is adjacent to site 0
Duinen Schiermonnikoog Ramsar Site, Wetland of International Importance 833 protected area is adjacent to site 0
Duinen en Lage Land Texel Ramsar Site, Wetland of International Importance 4,089 protected area is adjacent to site 0
Duinen en Lage Land Texel Natuurbeschermingswet 4,083 protected area is adjacent to site 0
Duinen en Lage Land Texel Site of Community Importance (Habitats Directive) 4,083 protected area is adjacent to site 0
Duinen en Lage Land Texel Special Protection Area (Birds Directive) 3,362 protected area is adjacent to site 0
Duinen Ameland Special Protection Area (Birds Directive) 2,055 protected area is adjacent to site 0
Duinen Ameland Site of Community Importance (Habitats Directive) 2,055 protected area is adjacent to site 0
Duinen Ameland Ramsar Site, Wetland of International Importance 2,054 protected area is adjacent to site 0
Duinen Ameland Natuurbeschermingswet 2,055 protected area is adjacent to site 0

Habitats

IUCN Habitat Habitat detail Extent (% of site)
Coastline Tidal rivers & enclosed tidal waters, Mud flats & sand flats -
For further information about the habitat classification please click here.

Land use

Land-use Extent (% of site)
fisheries/aquaculture -
military -
nature conservation and research -
tourism/recreation -
urban/industrial/transport -
For further information about the land use classification please click here.


Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Wadden Sea. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 07/06/2020.