It is a protected region and wetland area, which contains a lot of fresh and salt springs, it is near Jerico city, which is the oldest city in the world. The Dead Sea located in the south part of this region and which is considered as the lowest area in the world. There are beautiful green areas between the water of the Dead Sea and Jerusalem Wilderness, which make borders to separate between the water of the Dead Sea and the mountains. The world Fashkha mains crack or split, the reason for this name return to one top of Jerusalem mountains, it fell in the Dead Sea in the past, so this name - Al Fashkha - attributed to this area at which, there is no place for any body to stand on. The level of the Sea water declined between the 1937 and 1930 to 4 m, between 1957 and 1963 it declined about 3.5m. As a result of the water declination the width of the protection region become wider , in addition to the dryness that Jordanian and Israeli authorities and companies create in this region to take use of the mineral wealth that this Sea contains. The Dead Sea depends on the rainfall water that reaches to the sea through Wadi Qadroun, Wadi Al- Darajeeh, and Wadi Sowaneet. On the extension of northern borders of the Dead Sea from the west side there are three springs which are: Al-Gazal spring, Tanour spring, Al-Fashkha springs, the average of the these springs drainage reach to 3million meter. The oasis of Al-Fashkha extended in a distance of 1400m and 5km in order to reach the Dead Sea in several sites. This region is considered one of the less area in Palestine that contains wide distances of plants that exist in the wetland and which also contains springs in addition to tourism retreat.
The oasis of Al-Fashkha springs is considered as an important location for the emigrant and the water birds, because this oasis is located on the flying line during the transferring of emigrants birds and there return to the three continents which are: Asia, Europe, and Africa. The species that are found in this area are: Lapwing, Robin, the Warblers, in addition to Chukar. This area is considered as one of wetlands for emigrant and resident birds that belong to the Dead Sea region itself. It is noticed the existence of the Dead Sea sparrow that is threatened that is found in this area in a very special way, and the Lesser Kestrel that is founded in the mountainous area that scope of view on the Dead Sea from the western part. The Night Heron, at which it is considered one of the birds that started to stay and breed in this area. The Griffon Vulture also exists in the western part of Al-Fashkha springs and on the mountains that are scope of view on the Dead Sea. Finally there is the White Stork that emigrates through the area in large amounts.
Non-bird biodiversity: This region is famous by the Ibex and, Gazzella, Rocky Hyrax, and the wolf. There are also several species of fishes and crustacea that are found in the spring water.
Conservation responses/actions for key biodiversity
The management in the future: enlarge the distance of the protection area in order to include the nearby mountains till the place of the water fall, and this is because of the biodiversity in this area. Environmental tourism: encouraging of environmental tourism concepts in the Palestinian Society, encouraging the inhabitants and foreign people to visit this sight in order to watch birds and the wild animals by all the year, and not limit the visit on swimming only. Insert the water resources concepts in the region and trying to prepare the water more and more in the natural regions in order to attract more species of birds. Training of local people to manage protection areas in the future: according to the low number of human resource in managing the protection areas for the Palestinian Society, it is necessary to start preparing for the concepts especially when this locations transferred from the Israeli authorities to the Palestinians’ authorities.
The protection area consisting in a coast which is located near a long road in the western part of the Dead Sea and Al-Fashkha springs that is near Jerusalem Wilderness, its decline from the Sea level is between 380-400m below the sea level.
Habitat and land use
The plants that are founded in this region belong to the semi tropical climate that represent the palm trees, there are wetland areas covered by cane. There are also some kinds of plant, which like salt. The character of this oasis is the existence of artificial pools that some of them are created before the year 1976. In addition to the artificial pools, there are the natural pools and springs that contain the fresh water at which exist many species of fish. The Dead Sea region considered as one of the most important area in the world at which a lot of tourist from different places in the world visit and enjoy the unique climate and this wonderful nature.
BirdLife International (2021) Important Bird Areas factsheet: Ein Al-Fashkha. Downloaded from
http://www.birdlife.org on 27/10/2021.