Greater Spotted Eagle Clanga clanga


Taxonomic note
Clanga clanga (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously placed in the genus Aquila.

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - C2a(ii)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2013 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2012 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2011 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2008 Vulnerable C2a(ii)
2007 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 18,100,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 45,600,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 3300-8800 medium estimated 2004
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 16.6 - - -

Population justification: In Europe, the breeding population is estimated to number 810-1,100 breeding pairs, equating to 2,430-3,300 individuals (BirdLife International 2004). Europe forms 25-49% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 5,000-13,200 individuals in total, roughly equating to 3,300-8,800 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. National population estimates include: c.100-10,000 breeding pairs, c.50-1,000 individuals on migration and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in China; < c.50 individuals on migration and < c.50 wintering individuals in Taiwan and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: This species is suspected to have undergone at least a moderately rapid decline over the last three generations as a result of habitat loss and degradation throughout its breeding and wintering ranges, together with the effects of disturbance, persecution and competition with other predators. In Europe the population size is estimated to be decreasing by 50-79% in 49.8 years (three generations) and by at least 20% in 33.2 years (two generations) (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes Yes
Armenia N Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain V Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium V Extant
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Cambodia N Extant Yes
Cameroon V Extant Yes
Chad V Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cyprus V Extant
Denmark N Extant Yes
Djibouti N Extant Yes
Egypt N Extant Yes Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hong Kong (China) N Extant Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes
India N Extant Yes
Indonesia V Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan V Extant Yes
Jordan V Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant Yes Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Libya V Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Macao (China) N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extant Yes
Mali U Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes Yes
Morocco V Extant Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes Yes
Nepal N Extant Yes Yes
Netherlands V Extant
North Korea N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal V Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes Yes
Singapore V Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Africa U Extant Yes
South Korea V Extant Yes Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Spain V Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes
Switzerland V Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant
Tanzania V Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes Yes
Tunisia V Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda U Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
Uzbekistan N Possibly Extinct Yes Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia U Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Albania Karavasta Lagoon
Albania Velipoja
Bangladesh Hail Haor
Bangladesh Tanguar Haor and Panabeel
Belarus Al'manskija baloty
Belarus Balota Zvaniec
Belarus Biarezina-Hajna
Belarus Biarezinski zapaviednik
Belarus Bielaviežškaja Pušča
Belarus Chavanščyna
Belarus Cikiny astravy
Belarus Čyrvonaje
Belarus Kaz'jany
Belarus L'va floodplain
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Pcič floodplain
Belarus Polesie Reserve
Belarus Prypiackija baloty
Belarus Stary Žadzien
Belarus Vieluta
Belarus Volchva
Belarus Vydryca
Belarus Vyhanaščanskija baloty
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Cambodia Ang Tropeang Thmor
Cambodia Chhep
Cambodia Northern Santuk
Cambodia Stung / Chi Kreng / Kampong Svay
Cambodia Stung Sen / Santuk / Baray
Cambodia Upper Stung Sen Catchment
Cambodia Veal Srongae
Cambodia Western Siem Pang
China (mainland) Altay forest and steppe
China (mainland) Area between Qinghai Hu and A'nyêmaqên
China (mainland) Beidagang
China (mainland) Bogda (Tian Chi)
China (mainland) Burqin River and Kanas Lake
China (mainland) Dalai Nur Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Dali Nur Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Dongting Hu wetlands
China (mainland) Funiu Shan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Gongliu spruce forest
China (mainland) Gongping Dahu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Holqin Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Ili River basin
China (mainland) Karamay Mountains
China (mainland) Kunes forest
China (mainland) Lanbowan–Qilihe Wetland
China (mainland) Laotieshan
China (mainland) Meihua Shan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Min Jiang Estuary
China (mainland) Mori Grassland
China (mainland) Mount Huang Shan
China (mainland) Mount Tuomuer Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Oasis, Desert and Wetland at Mosuowan
China (mainland) Orqohan
China (mainland) Pangquangou Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Poyang Hu wetlands
China (mainland) Qapqal grassland and wetland
China (mainland) Saihan Ul Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Sanjiang Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Sayram Nur
China (mainland) She Dao Island
China (mainland) Shengjin Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Taipo Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Tongbiguan
China (mainland) Tumuji Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Wuda Lianchi Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xianghai Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yubei Huanghe Gudao Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Zhalong Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Zhengzhou Huanghe Wetland Nature Reserve
Croatia Lower Posavina
Croatia Podunavlje and Lower Podravlje
Djibouti Kadda Guéïni - Doumêra
Egypt Ain Sukhna
Egypt Suez
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Estonia Käntu-Kastja
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Evros delta
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Hong Kong (China) Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area
India Amangarh Reserve Forest
India Amboli-Tilari Reserve Forest
India Asan Barrage
India Bannerghatta National Park
India Banni Grassland and Chhari Dhand
India Basai wetlands
India Bauwwa Beel
India Bhal area
India Bhimashankar Wildlife Sanctuary
India Bhindawas Wildlife Sanctuary
India Bhitarkanika Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park
India Bordoibam-Bilmukh Bird Sanctuary
India Bordoloni - Sampora
India Carambolim Wetlands
India Cauvery Wildlife Sanctuary
India Chakrashila Complex
India Chirang Reserve Forest
India Corbett Tiger Reserve
India D'Ering Memorial Wildlife Sanctuary
India Deepor Beel Bird Sanctuary
India Desert National Park
India Dhanauri wetland
India Dhauludhar Wildlife Sanctuary and McLeod Gunj
India Dibru - Saikhowa Complex
India Dighal wetland
India Dihaila Jheel and other wetlands
India Dudhwa National Park
India Eaglenest Wildlife Sanctuary
India Flamingo City
India Gir National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary
India Gorumara National Park
India Gosabara (Mokarsar) wetland complex
India Grass Hills
India Gudavi Bird Sanctuary
India Hanle Plains (Hanle River marshes)
India Harike Lake Bird Sanctuary
India Hastinapur Wildlife Sanctuary
India Heerakund Reservoir and Debrigarh Wildlife Sanctuary
India Hesaraghatta Lake
India Hoskote Kere
India Jamjing and Sengajan
India Jhanjimukh - Kokilamukh
India Jor Beer
India Kaj Lake (Pipalava Bandharo)
India Kaliveli Tank and Yeduyanthittu estuary
India Kamlang Wildlife Sanctuary and Reserve Forest
India Katerniaghat Wildlife Sanctuary and Girijapur Barrage
India Kattampally
India Kawar (Kabar) Lake Wildlife Sanctuary
India Kaziranga National Park
India Keibul Lamjao National Park
India Keoladeo National Park and Ajan Bande
India Keshopur Miani (or Chhamb) Community Reserve
India Khijadiya Lake and Bird Sanctuary
India Kole Wetland
India Krishnarajasagar Reservoir
India Kunthur - Kallur Lakes
India Kurra Jheel
India Kyongnosla Alpine Sanctuary - Tsomgo - Tamze - Chola Complex
India Lakh-Bahosi Bird Sanctuary
India Laokhowa and Burhachapori Sanctuaries
India Lingambudhi Lake and environs
India Loktak Lake
India Loktak Lake and Keibul Lamjao National Park
India Madhav National Park
India Maenam Wildlife Sanctuary - Tendong Reserve Forest
India Maguri and Motapung Beels
India Mahul - Sewree Creek
India Majuli
India Manas National Park
India Marine National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary
India Mokama Taal (Barah) Wetlands
India Nagarhole National Park
India Naina Devi Himalayan Bird Conservation Reserve
India Nalsarovar Wildlife Sanctuary
India Namdapha - Kamlang
India Namdapha National Park
India Nameri National Park
India Narasambudhi Lake
India Narora
India National Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary (Agra/Etawah)
India National Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary (Bundi/Kota)
India Navegaon National Park
India Navelim wetland
India Nawabganj Bird Sanctuary
India Naya Bandh Wetland Complex
India Okhla Bird Sanctuary
India Pabho Reserve Forest
India Pabitora Wildlife Sanctuary
India Palamau Tiger Reserve
India Pangolakha Wildlife Sanctuary - Zuluk - Bedang Tso - Natula Complex
India Pani-Dihing Bird Sanctuary
India Patna Bird Sanctuary
India Pench Tiger Reserve
India Pench Tiger Reserve
India Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary
India Phansad Wildlife Sanctuary
India Pulicat Lake
India Rajaji National Park
India Rajiv Ghandi Wildlife Sanctuary (Nagarjunasagar - Srisailam Tiger Reserve)
India Rangananthittu Bird Sanctuary
India Riat Khwan - Umiam Lake
India Ripu and Chirang Reserve Forests
India Ripu Reserve Forest
India Saman Bird Sanctuary
India Samaspur Bird Sanctuary
India Sanjay Gandhi National Park
India Sareswar Beel
India Sariska Tiger Reserve
India Sheikha Jheel
India Simlipal National Park
India Singhalila National Park
India Son Beel
India Sultanpur National Park
India Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve (National Park)
India Sur Sarovar Bird Sanctuary
India Surajpur wetland
India Tadoba National Park and Andhari Tiger Reserve
India Taloda Reserve Forest
India Thane Creek
India Thol Lake Wildlife Sanctuary
India Toranmal Reserve Forest
India Tso Lhamo Plateau - Lashar - Sebu La - Yumesamdong Complex
India Ujjani Reservoir
India Upper Dihing (East) Complex
India Vedanthangal and Karikili Bird Sanctuary
India Velavadar National Park
India Vikramshila Gangetic Dolphin Sanctuary
India Wild Ass Wildlife Sanctuary
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Maharlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iraq Razzaza Lake
Israel Hula valley
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys
Israel Western Negev
Israel Zevulun valley
Kazakhstan Alekseevskie steppe pine forests
Kazakhstan Ertis Ormany (Shaldai Forest)
Kazakhstan Semey Ormany (Semipalatinsk Forest)
Kenya Nairobi National Park
Latvia Pededze forest and Parabaine
Malaysia Bintang Range
Malaysia Nakawan Range
Malaysia Tanjung Tuan
Mongolia Bulgan Tal
Mongolia Darkhad Depression
Mongolia Khan Khentii Strictly Protected Area
Mongolia Onon-Balj
Mongolia Uvs Lake
Myanmar Ayeyarwady River: Bagan Section
Myanmar Indawlay Kan
Myanmar Inle Lake
Myanmar Kaladan River
Myanmar Moyingyi
Myanmar Nadi Kan
Myanmar Taung Kan at Sedawgyi
Myanmar Yemyet Inn
Nepal Annapurna Conservation Area
Nepal Barandabhar forests and wetlands
Nepal Bardia National Park
Nepal Chitwan National Park
Nepal Koshi Tappu Wildlife Reserve and Koshi Barrage
Nepal Langtang National Park
Nepal Mai Valley forests
Nepal Nawalparasi forests
Nepal Sukla Phanta Wildlife Reserve
Oman Khawr Rouri
Pakistan Drigh Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Haleji Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Indus Dolphin Reserve and Kandhkot wetlands
Pakistan Indus Waterfowl Refuge
Pakistan Jubo Ramsar Site
Pakistan Keti Bundar North Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Kinjhar (Kalri) Wildlife Sanctuary
Pakistan Lal Sohanra National Park
Pakistan Manchar Lake
Pakistan Mehboob Shah Lake
Pakistan Nara canal wetlands (including Soonhari, Sadhori and Sanghriaro lakes)
Pakistan Phoosna Wetlands Complex
Pakistan Pugri Lake
Poland Biebrza river valley
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Măcin - Niculiţel
Russia (Asian) Argun' river
Russia (Asian) Arkhara lowlands
Russia (Asian) Balaganskaya steppe
Russia (Asian) Barluksko-Sayanskaya floodplain of Oka river and Kuitunskaya foreststeppe
Russia (Asian) Belozersk lakes
Russia (Asian) North Baikal wetlands
Russia (Asian) Northern slope of Khamar-Daban mountains
Russia (Asian) South Baikal migratory corridor
Russia (Asian) Tere-Khol' lake
Russia (Asian) Torey lakes
Russia (Asian) Tunkin valley
Russia (Asian) Valley of Barguzin
Russia (Central Asian) Baturino-Simansky area
Russia (Central Asian) Biyskiye pine forests
Russia (Central Asian) Bobrovsko-Rasskazikhinskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Burlinskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Burlinskaya forest band
Russia (Central Asian) Bystroistokskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Dresvyanskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Flood-plain of the Tuy river
Russia (Central Asian) Gornaya Kolyvan'
Russia (Central Asian) Karakansky pine forest
Russia (Central Asian) Kornilovsky pine forest
Russia (Central Asian) Kulundinskaya forest band
Russia (Central Asian) Kuznetsky Alatau Zapovednik
Russia (Central Asian) Muromcevskoje a bog
Russia (Central Asian) Natural reserve Kuznetskij Alatau
Russia (Central Asian) Ozersky pine forest
Russia (Central Asian) Pershinsko-Manatkinsky area
Russia (Central Asian) Proslaukhinskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Redut' pine forest
Russia (Central Asian) Suzunsky pine forest
Russia (Central Asian) Uzkaya Steppe
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of the Berd' river
Russia (Central Asian) Volchihinskay
Russia (Central Asian) Watershed of the Mulym'ya and Bolshoy Tap rivers
Russia (Central Asian) Yel'tsovskaya
Russia (European) Barchan Sarykum and Narat-Tyube
Russia (European) Bekovskoye forest
Russia (European) Bel'skaya flood-plain
Russia (European) Berkubinski forest
Russia (European) Birskaya flood-plain of river Belaya
Russia (European) Buinakskaya depression
Russia (European) Bulukhta area
Russia (European) Chapaevskie Limans
Russia (European) Chudsko-Pskovski Lake and the adjacent areas
Russia (European) Dedinovo flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Downstream of Ik river
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Klyaz'ma river from mouth of Teza river up to Mstera
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Lukh river between Lukh and Myt villages
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Lukh river between Myt and Mugreevo-Nikol'skoye villages
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Oka river in Vachski district of North Novgorod region and adjacent areas of Vladimir region
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Volkhov river
Russia (European) Forests and wetlands in the valley of the Nuzhma river
Russia (European) Homeland of the Crane (Dubna marshes and adjacent areas)
Russia (European) Irnykshinskiye marshes
Russia (European) Kaltasinski forest
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Russia (European) Kamsko-Yayvenski wetland
Russia (European) Kayakentski reserve
Russia (European) Khrenovski forest
Russia (European) Klyazminski reserve
Russia (European) Klyazminsko-Balakhninskaya lowland
Russia (European) Krasnokamski forest
Russia (European) Kuplongskaya
Russia (European) Kvarkush and Zolotoy Kamen' ridges
Russia (European) Laman-Kam area
Russia (European) Mishkinski forest
Russia (European) Mordovian P. G. Smidovich Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Mountain valley of Ai river
Russia (European) Mountain valley of Zilim river
Russia (European) Nerussa - Desna woodland
Russia (European) Okhlebininskaya flood-plain of river Belaya
Russia (European) Okski Biosphere Reserve
Russia (European) Pavlovskoye reservoir
Russia (European) Rasskazan' lake and flood-plain of Khoper river
Russia (European) Redrovski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Rychkovskaya forest-steppe
Russia (European) Shur-Dere and Rubas foothills
Russia (European) Smolenskoye Poozer'ye
Russia (European) Sokino
Russia (European) Sondugski Reserve and its outskirts
Russia (European) Terekhovski oak-forest
Russia (European) Tsninski Forest
Russia (European) Ufimskoye plateau
Russia (European) Upper Voronezh forest
Russia (European) Uryuk
Russia (European) Valley of Bashlychai river
Russia (European) Valley of Zhizdra river
Russia (European) Vetluga floodplain in the Nizhni Novgorod region
Russia (European) Voronezhski Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Watershed between Sura and Barysh rivers
Russia (European) Watershed of Bel'skaya and Nugush rivers
Russia (European) Zalazniki, Beli, Urino and Leskovo area
Russia (European) Zavidovo Reserve, including Lotoshinski, Klinski and Diatlovo fish ponds
Saudi Arabia Al-Ha'ir
Saudi Arabia Malaki dam
Singapore Kranji-Mandai
Singapore Ubin-Khatib
South Korea Cheonsu Bay
South Korea Gocheonam-ho lake
South Korea Yeongam-ho lake
Thailand Inner Gulf of Thailand
Thailand Lower Central Basin
Turkey Göksu Delta
Turkey Meriç Delta
Ukraine Bondar marsh
Ukraine Forests in Dnipro and Desna valleys
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
United Arab Emirates Al Marmoom Desert
United Arab Emirates Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary (Khor Dubai)
United Arab Emirates Siniyah Island
Uzbekistan Angren Plateau
Uzbekistan Dalverzin State Forestry and Hunting Management Area
Uzbekistan Sudochye Lake
Uzbekistan Zarafshan State Nature Reserve
Yemen Aden

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Seasonally Flooded Agricultural Land major non-breeding
Forest Subarctic major breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Swamp major breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded major non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes and Flats major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Shrub Dominated Wetlands suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 1400 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 4000 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Neovison vison Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Clanga pomarina Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (agricultural use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Clanga clanga. Downloaded from on 20/01/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 20/01/2020.