Atlantic forest lowlands

Country/Territory Argentina,Brazil,Paraguay
Area 290,000 km2
Altitude 0 - 1700m
Priority critical
Habitat loss severe
Knowledge incomplete

General characteristics

This EBA covers an extensive stretch of coastal eastern Brazil and also parts of north-east Argentina and eastern Paraguay. It spans more than 2,500 km of the Atlantic slope coastline from central Bahia state south through the states of Esp

Restricted-range species

This EBA has a particularly distinct avifauna including ten endemic genera-Triclaria, Ramphodon, Jacamaralcyon, Acrobatornis, Clibanornis, Cichlocolaptes, Biatas, Psilorhamphus, Merulaxis and Calyptura.

All the EBA's restricted-range bird species are forest-dwelling, but show distinct forest-type or altitudinal preferences (see 'Habitat associations' table): some, such as the recently described Phylloscartes kronei and Formicivora littoralis, are found only in the restinga woodland, which makes up a small fraction of the habitat in the EBA; others, such as several Sporophila spp., are found mainly in the bamboo stands which are present patchily within the forest.

In the original analysis (ICBP 1992; see also Brand

Species IUCN Category
Red-billed Curassow (Crax blumenbachii) EN
Saw-billed Hermit (Ramphodon naevius) NT
Hook-billed Hermit (Glaucis dohrnii) EN
Minute Hermit (Phaethornis idaliae) LC
Tawny-browed Owl (Pulsatrix koeniswaldiana) LC
Three-toed Jacamar (Jacamaralcyon tridactyla) VU
Yellow-eared Woodpecker (Veniliornis maculifrons) LC
Brown-backed Parrotlet (Touit melanonotus) VU
Blue-bellied Parrot (Triclaria malachitacea) NT
Red-tailed Amazon (Amazona brasiliensis) NT
(Formicivora littoralis) NR
Rio de Janeiro Antwren (Myrmotherula fluminensis) NR
(Formicivora serrana) NR
Black-hooded Antwren (Formicivora erythronotos) EN
Salvadori's Antwren (Myrmotherula minor) VU
Band-tailed Antwren (Myrmotherula urosticta) VU
Unicolored Antwren (Myrmotherula unicolor) NT
Star-throated Antwren (Rhopias gularis) LC
Spot-breasted Antvireo (Dysithamnus stictothorax) NT
Plumbeous Antvireo (Dysithamnus plumbeus) VU
White-bearded Antshrike (Biatas nigropectus) VU
Rio de Janeiro Antbird (Cercomacra brasiliana) NT
Bertoni's Antbird (Drymophila rubricollis) LC
Scalloped Antbird (Myrmoderus ruficauda) EN
White-bibbed Antbird (Myrmoderus loricatus) LC
Squamate Antbird (Myrmoderus squamosus) LC
Fringe-backed Fire-eye (Pyriglena atra) EN
Spotted Bamboowren (Psilorhamphus guttatus) NT
Bahia Tapaculo (Eleoscytalopus psychopompus) EN
Slaty Bristlefront (Merulaxis ater) NT
Stresemann's Bristlefront (Merulaxis stresemanni) CR
Cryptic Antthrush (Chamaeza meruloides) LC
(Cichlocolaptes leucophrus) NR
White-browed Foliage-gleaner (Anabacerthia amaurotis) NT
Canebrake Groundcreeper (Clibanornis dendrocolaptoides) NT
Orange-eyed Thornbird (Phacellodomus erythrophthalmus) LC
Pink-legged Graveteiro (Acrobatornis fonsecai) VU
Striated Softtail (Thripophaga macroura) VU
Hooded Berryeater (Carpornis cucullata) NT
Banded Cotinga (Cotinga maculata) EN
White-winged Cotinga (Xipholena atropurpurea) VU
Buff-throated Purpletuft (Iodopleura pipra) EN
Kinglet Calyptura (Calyptura cristata) CR
Restinga Tyrannulet (Phylloscartes kronei) VU
Oustalet's Tyrannulet (Phylloscartes oustaleti) NT
Kaempfer's Tody-tyrant (Hemitriccus kaempferi) VU
Fork-tailed Tody-tyrant (Hemitriccus furcatus) VU
Cherry-throated Tanager (Nemosia rourei) CR
Black-legged Dacnis (Dacnis nigripes) NT
Dubois's Seedeater (Sporophila ardesiaca) LC
Temminck's Seedeater (Sporophila falcirostris) VU
Buffy-fronted Seedeater (Sporophila frontalis) VU
Azure-shouldered Tanager (Tangara cyanoptera) NT
Black-backed Tanager (Tangara peruviana) VU
Gilt-edged Tanager (Tangara cyanoventris) LC

Important Bird Areas (IBAs)
IBA Code Site Name Country
AR111 Parque Nacional Iguazú y alrededores Argentina
AR112 Parque Provincial Uruzú y Reserva Forestal San Jorge Argentina
AR115 Parque Provincial Urugua-í Argentina
AR119 Alta cuenca del arroyo Alegría Argentina
AR121 Parque Provincial Piñalito y alrededores Argentina
AR123 San Pedro Argentina
AR124 Reserva Privada Yaguaroundí Argentina
AR126 Reserva de la Biósfera Yabotí Argentina
AR127 Parque Provincial Salto Encantado del Valle del Cuñá-Pirú y alrededores Argentina
AR128 Dos de Mayo Argentina
AR132 Cerro Mártires y Barra Santa María Argentina
BR094 Matas de Conde e Baixios Brazil
BR096 Itanagra Brazil
BR102 Baixo-Sul Brazil
BR106 Ilhéus / Itabuna Brazil
BR109 Una Brazil
BR110 Serras das Lontras e do Javi Brazil
BR111 Serra Bonita Brazil
BR116 Parque Nacional de Monte Pascoal Brazil
BR119 Rio Mucuri Brazil
BR125 Serra de Itabaiana e Matas de Areia Branca Brazil
BR133 Bandeira / Macarani Brazil
BR149 Laranjal / Miracema Brazil
BR159 Sooretama / Linhares Brazil
BR160 Santa Teresa Brazil
BR161 Itarana Brazil
BR163 Fazenda Pindobas IV e Arredores Brazil
BR165 Encostas da Região de Domingos Martins Brazil
BR166 Complexo Pedra Azul / Forno Grande Brazil
BR173 Parque Estadual da Serra do Mar (entre Caraguatatuba e Picinguaba) Brazil
BR181 Maciço Florestal de Paranapiacaba Brazil
BR182 Estação Ecológica de Juréia-Itatins Brazil
BR184 Parque Estadual do Desengano e Entorno Brazil
BR188 Serra dos Órgãos Brazil
BR190 Serra do Tinguá Brazil
BR191 Maciços da Tijuca e Pedra Branca Brazil
BR192 Restinga de Maçambaba e Ilha de Cabo Frio Brazil
BR194 Serra da Bocaina / Paraty / Angra dos Reis Brazil
BR199 Guaraqueçaba / Jacupiranga / Cananéia Brazil
BR202 Serra do Marumbi Brazil
BR208 Área de Proteção Ambiental de Guaratuba Brazil
BR213 Baía da Babitonga Brazil
PY030 Bosque Mbaracayú Paraguay
PY032 Morombi Paraguay
PY035 Ybyturuzú Paraguay
PY036 Estancia Itabó Paraguay
PY039 Ypeti Paraguay
PY042 Parque Nacional Caazapá Paraguay
PY045 Tapyta Paraguay
PY046 Parque Nacional San Rafael Paraguay

Threat and conservation

This EBA lies within the most densely populated region of Brazil, being one of the first places in South America to be colonized by Europeans, 400 years ago. Destruction of the forest (e.g. for timber such as brazilwood Caesalpina echinata) began soon after their arrival. The fertile lands of the coastal plain were converted to agriculture, and then deforestation for mining, coffee, banana and rubber plantations occurred as the settlers moved inland (Fearnside 1996). The main threats to the remaining forest over the next 10 years will be urbanization, industrialization, agricultural expansion, colonization and associated road-building (Dinerstein et al. 1995). All this destruction has reduced the Atlantic forest in this EBA to less than 20% of its original extent, and in some parts, such as Bahia and Esp

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Endemic Bird Areas factsheet: Atlantic forest lowlands. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 16/02/2019.