Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia

Country/Territory Indonesia,Malaysia
Area 89,000 km2
Altitude 500 - 3500m
Priority urgent
Habitat loss moderate
Knowledge incomplete

General characteristics

This EBA includes mountains on the Indonesian island of Sumatra (in the provinces of Aceh, Sumatera Utara, Sumatera Barat, Jambi, Bengkulu, Sumatera Selatan and Lampung) and in Peninsular Malaysia. The Barisan range runs the entire length of western Sumatra, and has several peaks of over 3,000

Restricted-range species

The mountains of Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia are defined as comprising a single EBA because they share more restricted-range species than are endemic to the mountains of Peninsular Malaysia alone. Of the 20 species confined to this EBA, 14 are endemic to Sumatra and two to Peninsular Malaysia, and four are shared, including the monotypic endemic genus Psilopogon. This EBA has affinities with the other Greater Sunda montane EBAs, sharing 12 restricted-range species with the Javan and Bali forests (EBA 160), and five with the Bornean mountains (EBA 157).

The mountains of Peninsular Malaysia are relatively well known ornithologically (e.g. Medway and Wells 1976, Yatim 1993), but those of Sumatra are less well studied (see van Marle and Voous 1988, Holmes 1996) and much remains to be learned about the habitat requirements and distributions of that island's restricted-range species. All are primarily forest birds, but there is some variation in their altitudinal distribution. Several species appear to be particularly associated with hill dipterocarp and lower montane forest, notably Rheinardia ocellata (restricted within this EBA to hill dipterocarp forest in Peninsular Malaysia), Treron oxyura, Carpococcyx viridis, Batrachostomus poliolophus, Pitta venusta, Pycnonotus leucogrammicus, P. tympanistrigus, P. nieuwenhuisii (considered to be a lowland-forest-slope specialist by Wells 1985), Chloropsis venusta, Garrulax lugubris, Napothera marmorata and Dicrurus sumatranus.

Several species appear to be localized in their distribution on Sumatra, including Lophura hoogerwerfi, which is known only from the northern Barisan range, and L. inornata and Carpococcyx viridis, which have only been recorded in the southern Barisan range.

Vanderbilt's Babbler Malacocincla vanderbilti, known by a single specimen from northern Sumatra was recognized as a full species by Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993) but is judged by (Mees 1995) not to be one, and has not been included here.

Species IUCN Category
(Lophura hoogerwerfi) NR
(Lophura inornata) NR
Red-billed Partridge (Arborophila rubrirostris) LC
Crested Argus (Rheinardia ocellata) EN
Mountain Peacock-pheasant (Polyplectron inopinatum) VU
Bronze-tailed Peacock-pheasant (Polyplectron chalcurum) LC
Sumatran Green-pigeon (Treron oxyurus) NT
Pink-headed Fruit-dove (Ptilinopus porphyreus) LC
Short-tailed Frogmouth (Batrachostomus poliolophus) NT
Salvadori's Nightjar (Caprimulgus pulchellus) NT
Waterfall Swift (Hydrochous gigas) NT
Sumatran Ground-cuckoo (Carpococcyx viridis) CR
Rajah Scops-owl (Otus brookii) LC
Javan Trogon (Apalharpactes reinwardtii) VU
Fire-tufted Barbet (Psilopogon pyrolophus) LC
Graceful Pitta (Erythropitta venusta) VU
Schneider's Pitta (Hydrornis schneideri) VU
Sunda Minivet (Pericrocotus miniatus) LC
Sumatran Drongo (Dicrurus sumatranus) NT
(Ixos virescens) NR
(Pycnonotus bimaculatus) NR
Cream-striped Bulbul (Pycnonotus leucogrammicus) LC
Spot-necked Bulbul (Pycnonotus tympanistrigus) NT
Blue-wattled Bulbul (Pycnonotus nieuwenhuisii) DD
(Phylloscopus grammiceps) NR
Black-capped White-eye (Zosterops atricapilla) LC
Rusty-breasted Wren-babbler (Turdinus rufipectus) LC
Marbled Wren-babbler (Turdinus marmoratus) LC
Sunda Laughingthrush (Garrulax palliatus) NT
Black Laughingthrush (Garrulax lugubris) LC
Sumatran Cochoa (Cochoa beccarii) VU
Rufous-vented Niltava (Niltava sumatrana) LC
Sunda Blue Robin (Myiomela diana) LC
Sunda Forktail (Enicurus velatus) LC
Shiny Whistling-thrush (Myophonus melanurus) LC
Malay Whistling-thrush (Myophonus robinsoni) NT
Blue-masked Leafbird (Chloropsis venusta) NT
(Chrysocorythus estherae) NR

Important Bird Areas (IBAs)
IBA Code Site Name Country
ID001 Gunung Leuser Indonesia
ID004 Hutan Raya Bukit Barisan Indonesia
ID009 Batang Gadis Indonesia
ID010 Malampah Alahan Panjang Indonesia
ID011 Gunung Singgalang Indonesia
ID015 Bukit Baling Indonesia
ID022 Siak Kecil Indonesia
ID026 Bukit Bahar-Tajau Pecah Indonesia
ID027 Meranti Indonesia
ID029 Kerinci Seblat Indonesia
ID035 Gunung Dempo Indonesia
ID036 Bukit Kaba Indonesia
ID039 Bukit Barisan Selatan Indonesia
MY004 Bintang Range Malaysia
MY007 Belum-Temenggor Malaysia
MY009 Central Titiwangsa Range Malaysia
MY010 Hulu Gombak-Sungai Lalang forest Malaysia
MY013 Endau-Rompin Malaysia
MY016 Krau Wildlife Reserve Malaysia
MY017 Taman Negara National Park Malaysia
TH059 Hala Sector, Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary and Bang Lang National Park Thailand

Threat and conservation

The main threat to the birds of this EBA is deforestation. On Sumatra, at least a third of the natural area of montane forest on the island has been lost, and two-thirds to four-fifths of the lowland forest, and natural vegetation is probably being lost faster than in any other part of Indonesia. Agricultural encroachment by shifting cultivators is an important cause of deforestation, which is affecting large areas of hill dipterocarp and lower montane forest, even within gazetted protected areas (Whitten et al. 1987b, Collins et al. 1991, A.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2018) Endemic Bird Areas factsheet: Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 13/12/2018.