Mindanao and the Eastern Visayas

Country/Territory Philippines
Area 120,000 km2
Altitude 0 - 2700m
Priority critical
Habitat loss major
Knowledge incomplete

General characteristics

The major part of this EBA is the lowlands and mountains of Mindanao, at just under 100,000 km2 the second largest Philippine island after Luzon (EBA 151); also included are the islands of Samar, Leyte and Bohol (which are politically part of the Visayas; see also EBAs 152, 153), and associated islands such as Biliran, Dinagat, Siargao, Camiguin Sur and Basilan.

The mountain ranges of Mindanao form three main uplands: those east of the Agusan river including Mt Hilong Hilong in the Diuta range and Mt Mayo in the south-east; the central uplands with major peaks such as Mts Katanglad, Apo and Matutum; and the mountains of the Zamboanga peninsula including Mts Malindang and Sugarloaf.

Various different forest types can be recognized, including lowland evergreen rain forest up to c.400

Restricted-range species

All the restricted-range species of this EBA are forest birds. Although some have been recorded from degraded or selectively logged or secondary forest, the long-term survival of all is likely to depend on proximity to primary habitat.

Species can be divided into those which tend to occur in lowland and hill forest (largely below 1,000

Species IUCN Category
Mindanao Bleeding-heart (Gallicolumba crinigera) VU
Dark-eared Brown-dove (Phapitreron brunneiceps) VU
Philippine Spinetail (Mearnsia picina) NT
Whitehead's Swiftlet (Aerodramus whiteheadi) DD
Brown-banded Rail (Lewinia mirifica) DD
Giant Scops-owl (Otus gurneyi) VU
Mindanao Highland Scops-owl (Otus mirus) NT
(Penelopides affinis) NR
(Penelopides samarensis) NR
Writhed Hornbill (Rhabdotorrhinus leucocephalus) NT
(Alcedo argentata) NR
Blue-capped Kingfisher (Actenoides hombroni) VU
Mindanao Lorikeet (Trichoglossus johnstoniae) NT
Mindanao Racquet-tail (Prioniturus waterstradti) NT
Azure-breasted Pitta (Pitta steerii) VU
Visayan Wattled Broadbill (Sarcophanops samarensis) VU
Mindanao Wattled Broadbill (Sarcophanops steerii) VU
McGregor's Cuckooshrike (Malindangia mcgregori) LC
Black-and-cinnamon Fantail (Rhipidura nigrocinnamomea) LC
Short-crested Monarch (Hypothymis helenae) NT
Celestial Monarch (Hypothymis coelestis) VU
Mountain Shrike (Lanius validirostris) NT
White-fronted Tit (Sittiparus semilarvatus) NT
(Micromacronus leytensis) NR
Yellow-breasted Tailorbird (Orthotomus samarensis) NT
Black-headed Tailorbird (Orthotomus nigriceps) LC
White-eared Tailorbird (Orthotomus cinereiceps) LC
Long-tailed Grasshopper-warbler (Locustella caudata) LC
(Hypsipetes everetti) NR
Zamboanga Bulbul (Hypsipetes rufigularis) NT
Rufous-headed Tailorbird (Phyllergates heterolaemus) LC
Mindanao White-eye (Heleia goodfellowi) LC
Rusty-crowned Babbler (Sterrhoptilus capitalis) LC
(Stachyris plateni) NR
Bagobo Babbler (Leonardina woodi) LC
Striated Wren-babbler (Ptilocichla mindanensis) LC
Apo Myna (Goodfellowia miranda) NT
Slaty-backed Jungle-flycatcher (Vauriella goodfellowi) NT
Little Slaty Flycatcher (Ficedula basilanica) VU
Cryptic Flycatcher (Ficedula crypta) LC
Philippine Leafbird (Chloropsis flavipennis) VU
(Dicaeum anthonyi) NR
Whiskered Flowerpecker (Dicaeum proprium) LC
Olive-capped Flowerpecker (Dicaeum nigrilore) LC
Lina's Sunbird (Aethopyga linaraborae) NT
Grey-hooded Sunbird (Aethopyga primigenia) NT
Apo Sunbird (Aethopyga boltoni) NT
Red-eared Parrotfinch (Erythrura coloria) NT
Cinnamon Ibon (Hypocryptadius cinnamomeus) LC
(Chrysocorythus estherae) NR
White-cheeked Bullfinch (Pyrrhula leucogenis) LC

Important Bird Areas (IBAs)
IBA Code Site Name Country
PH073 Mount Cabalantian - Mount Capoto-an complex Philippines
PH074 Mount Yacgun - Mount Sohoton complex Philippines
PH075 Southern Samar mountains Philippines
PH076 Biliran and Maripipi Island Philippines
PH077 Anonang-Lobi Range Philippines
PH078 Mount Nacolod Philippines
PH080 Rajah Sikatuna Protected Landscape Philippines
PH081 Mount Kambinlio and Mount Redondo Philippines
PH082 Siargao Island Protected Landscape and Seascape Philippines
PH083 Mount Hilong-hilong Philippines
PH084 Mount Diwata Range Philippines
PH085 Agusan Marsh Philippines
PH086 Bislig Philippines
PH087 Mount Agtuuganon and Mount Pasian Philippines
PH088 Mount Kampalili-Puting Bato Philippines
PH089 Mount Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary Philippines
PH090 Timpoong and Hibok-hibok Natural Monument Philippines
PH091 Mount Balatukan Philippines
PH092 Mount Kaluayan - Mount Kinabalian Complex Philippines
PH093 Mount Tago Range Philippines
PH094 Mount Kitanglad Range Natural Park Philippines
PH095 Mount Kalatungan Range Natural Park Philippines
PH096 Munai / Tambo Philippines
PH097 Lake Lanao Philippines
PH098 Mount Piagayungan Philippines
PH099 Butig mountains Philippines
PH100 Mount Sinaka Philippines
PH101 Mount Apo Natural Park Philippines
PH102 Liguasan marsh Philippines
PH103 Mount Daguma Philippines
PH104 Mount Matutum Protected Landscape Philippines
PH105 Mount Busa-Kiamba Philippines
PH106 Mount Latian complex Philippines
PH107 Mount Malindang Natural Park Philippines
PH108 Mount Dapiak-Mount Paraya Philippines
PH109 Mount Sugarloaf Philippines
PH110 Mount Timolan Protected Landscape Philippines
PH111 Lituban-Quipit Watershed Philippines
PH112 Pasonanca Natural Park Philippines
PH113 Basilan Natural Biotic Area Philippines

Threat and conservation

The islands of this EBA were originally completely forested but satellite data from 1988 show forest covering only 33% of Samar, 14% of Leyte, 6% of Bohol, and 29% of Mindanao (Dickinson et al. 1991). These figures are, however, likely to be overestimates (T. Fisher per G.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2018) Endemic Bird Areas factsheet: Mindanao and the Eastern Visayas. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/04/2018.